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Variable List > Macro-Level Variables

The following list of variables was produced from the Full Release of CSES Module 1 (August 4, 2003 version), the second Advance Release of CSES Module 2 (December 15, 2004 version), and the first Advance Release of CSES Module 3 (March 29, 2010 version).

The list is being provided to help in understanding what content is available from CSES, and to compare the content available in each module. However, the list is not intended to replace use of the codebook and other study documentation, so please refer instead to those materials when you are ready to begin your analysis of the data.

The first row of each entry, in orange, is the variable label. The second row of each entry, in grey, contains the variable names from the dataset. The third row of each entry, in white, is the variable description or question text. The second and third rows are divided into three columns - the first for Module 1 (1996-2001), the second for Module 2 (2001-2006), and the third for Module 3 (2006-2011).

Because the list merges multiple modules, questions do not necessarily appear in the order in which they were asked, and variables do not necessarily appear in the same order as in the codebooks.

CSES Module 1
(1996-2001)
CSES Module 2
(2001-2006)
CSES Module 3
(2006-2011)

Macro-Level Variables

NUMBER OF PARTIES PARTICIPATING IN ELECTION
    C5015
    How many political parties received votes in the election?
EFFECTIVE NUMBER OF ELECTORAL PARTIES
    C5093
    Effective number of electoral parties (ENEP).
CORRECTED EFFECTIVE NUMBER OF ELECTORAL PARTIES
    C5094
    Corrected effective number of electoral parties (CENEP).
EFFECTIVE NUMBER OF PARLIAMENTARY PARTIES
    C5095
    Effective number of parliamentary parties (ENPP).
CORRECTED EFFECTIVE NUMBER OF PARLIAMENTARY PARTIES
    C5096
    Effective number of parliamentary parties (CENPP).
YEAR FOUNDED - PARTY A
YEAR FOUNDED - PARTY B
YEAR FOUNDED - PARTY C
YEAR FOUNDED - PARTY D
YEAR FOUNDED - PARTY E
YEAR FOUNDED - PARTY F
YEAR FOUNDED - PARTY G
YEAR FOUNDED - PARTY H
YEAR FOUNDED - PARTY I
A5001_A
A5001_B
A5001_C
A5001_D
A5001_E
A5001_F
A5001_G
A5001_H
A5001_I
B5011_A
B5011_B
B5011_C
B5011_D
B5011_E
B5011_F
B5011_G
B5011_H
B5011_I
 
Year party founded Year party founded  
IDEOLOGICAL FAMILY - PARTY A
IDEOLOGICAL FAMILY - PARTY B
IDEOLOGICAL FAMILY - PARTY C
IDEOLOGICAL FAMILY - PARTY D
IDEOLOGICAL FAMILY - PARTY E
IDEOLOGICAL FAMILY - PARTY F
IDEOLOGICAL FAMILY - PARTY G
IDEOLOGICAL FAMILY - PARTY H
IDEOLOGICAL FAMILY - PARTY I
A5002_A
A5002_B
A5002_C
A5002_D
A5002_E
A5002_F
B5012_A
B5012_B
B5012_C
B5012_D
B5012_E
B5012_F
B5012_G
B5012_H
B5012_I
C5016_A
C5016_B
C5016_C
C5016_D
C5016_E
C5016_F
C5016_G
C5016_H
C5016_I
Ideological Family Party is Closest to Ideological Family Party is Closest to Ideological Family Party is Closest to
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT POLITICAL GROUP - PARTY A
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT POLITICAL GROUP - PARTY B
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT POLITICAL GROUP - PARTY C
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT POLITICAL GROUP - PARTY D
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT POLITICAL GROUP - PARTY E
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT POLITICAL GROUP - PARTY F
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT POLITICAL GROUP - PARTY G
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT POLITICAL GROUP - PARTY H
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT POLITICAL GROUP - PARTY I
  B5013_A
B5013_B
B5013_C
B5013_D
B5013_E
B5013_F
B5013_G
B5013_H
B5013_I
 
  European Parliament Party Political Group party belongs to:  
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION - PARTY A
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION - PARTY B
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION - PARTY C
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION - PARTY D
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION - PARTY E
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION - PARTY F
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION - PARTY G
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION - PARTY H
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION - PARTY I
A5003_A
A5003_B
A5003_C
A5003_D
A5003_E
A5003_F
B5014_A
B5014_B
B5014_C
B5014_D
B5014_E
B5014_F
B5014_Gbr> B5014_H
B5014_I
 
International Organization Party Belongs to International Organization Party Belongs to  
SIGNIFICANT PARTIES NOT REPRESENTED IN PARLIAMENT BEFORE THE ELECTION
  B5015  
  Significant parties not represented in parliament before the election (in the expert judgment of the CSES Collaborator).  
SIGNIFICANT PARTIES NOT REPRESENTED IN PARLIAMENT AFTER THE ELECTION
  B5016  
  Significant parties not represented in parliament after the election (in the expert judgment of the CSES Collaborator).  
OTHER NON-REPRESENTED SIGNIFICANT PARTIES/INDEPENDENT ACTORS
  B5017  
  Other non-represented parties or independent actors who had a significant effect on the election (in the expert judgment of the CSES Collaborator).  
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY A
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY B
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY C
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY D
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY E
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY F
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY G
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY H
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY I
A5004_A
A5004_B
A5004_C
A5004_D
A5004_E
A5004_F
B5018_A
B5018_B
B5018_C
B5018_D
B5018_E
B5018_F
B5018_G
B5018_H
B5018_I
C5017_A
C5017_B
C5017_C
C5017_D
C5017_E
C5017_F
C5017_G
C5017_H
C5017_I
Parties' position in left-right scale (in the expert judgment of the CSES Collaborator) Parties' position in left-right scale (in the expert judgment of the CSES Collaborator) Parties' positions on the left-right scale (in the expert judgment of the CSES Collaborator)
CONSENSUS ON THE LEFT-RIGHT PLACEMENTS
  B5019  
  Would there be a general consensus on left-right placements among informed observers in the country (in the expert judgment of the CSES Collaborator).  
ALTERNATIVE DIMENSION
  B5020 C5018
  Were respondents asked to rank political parties on an alternative dimension, other than the left-right dimension? Were respondents asked to rank political parties on an alternative dimension, other than the left-right dimension?
ALTERNATIVE DIMENSION - PARTY A
ALTERNATIVE DIMENSION - PARTY B
ALTERNATIVE DIMENSION - PARTY C
ALTERNATIVE DIMENSION - PARTY D
ALTERNATIVE DIMENSION - PARTY E
ALTERNATIVE DIMENSION - PARTY F
ALTERNATIVE DIMENSION - PARTY G
ALTERNATIVE DIMENSION - PARTY H
ALTERNATIVE DIMENSION - PARTY I
  B5020_A
B5020_B
B5020_C
B5020_D
B5020_E
B5020_F
B5020_G
B5020_H
B5020_I
C5018_A
C5018_B
C5018_C
C5018_D
C5018_E
C5018_F
C5018_G
C5018_H
C5018_I
  Parties' positions on the alternative scale (in the expert judgment of the CSES Collaborator) Parties' positions on the alternative scale (in the expert judgment of the CSES Collaborator)
CONSENSUS ON THE ALTERNATIVE DIMENSION PLACEMENTS
  B5021  
  Would there be a general consensus on that alternative dimension placements among informed observers in the country (in the expert judgment of the CSES Collaborator).  
PERCENT VOTE - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY A
PERCENT VOTE - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY B
PERCENT VOTE - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY C
PERCENT VOTE - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY D
PERCENT VOTE - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY E
PERCENT VOTE - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY F
PERCENT VOTE - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY G
PERCENT VOTE - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY H
PERCENT VOTE - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY I
A5005_A
A5005_B
A5005_C
A5005_D
A5005_E
A5005_F
B5001_A
B5001_B
B5001_C
B5001_D
B5001_E
B5001_F
B5001_G
B5001_H
B5001_I
C5001_A
C5001_B
C5001_C
C5001_D
C5001_E
C5001_F
C5001_G
C5001_H
C5001_I
Percent of popular vote received by [PARTY A-F] in current (lower house) legislative election Percent of popular vote received by [PARTY A-I] in current (lower house) legislative election Percent of popular vote received by [PARTY A-I] in current (lower house) legislative election
PERCENT SEATS - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY A
PERCENT SEATS - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY B
PERCENT SEATS - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY C
PERCENT SEATS - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY D
PERCENT SEATS - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY E
PERCENT SEATS - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY F
PERCENT SEATS - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY G
PERCENT SEATS - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY H
PERCENT SEATS - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY I
A5006_A
A5006_B
A5006_C
A5006_D
A5006_E
A5006_F
B5002_A
B5002_B
B5002_C
B5002_D
B5002_E
B5002_F
B5002_G
B5002_H
B5002_I
C5002_A
C5002_B
C5002_C
C5002_D
C5002_E
C5002_F
C5002_G
C5002_H
C5002_I
Percent of seats in lower house received by [PARTY A-F] in current (lower house) election Percent of seats in lower house received by [PARTY A-I] in current (lower house) election Percent of seats in lower house received by [PARTY A-I] in current (lower house) election
PERCENT VOTE - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY A
PERCENT VOTE - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY B
PERCENT VOTE - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY C
PERCENT VOTE - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY D
PERCENT VOTE - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY E
PERCENT VOTE - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY F
PERCENT VOTE - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY G
PERCENT VOTE - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY H
PERCENT VOTE - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY I
A5007_A
A5007_B
A5007_C
A5007_D
A5007_E
A5007_F
B5003_A
B5003_B
B5003_C
B5003_D
B5003_E
B5003_F
B5003_G
B5003_H
B5003_I
C5003_A
C5003_B
C5003_C
C5003_D
C5003_E
C5003_F
C5003_G
C5003_H
C5003_I
Percent of popular vote received by [PARTY A-F] in current (upper house) legislative election Percent of popular vote received by [PARTY A-I] in current (upper house) legislative election Percent of popular vote received by [PARTY A-I] in current (upper house) legislative election
PERCENT SEATS - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY A
PERCENT SEATS - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY B
PERCENT SEATS - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY C
PERCENT SEATS - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY D
PERCENT SEATS - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY E
PERCENT SEATS - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY F
PERCENT SEATS - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY G
PERCENT SEATS - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY H
PERCENT SEATS - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY I
A5008_A
A5008_B
A5008_C
A5008_D
A5008_E
A5008_F
B5004_A
B5004_B
B5004_C
B5004_D
B5004_E
B5004_F
B5004_G
B5004_H
B5004_I
C5004_A
C5004_B
C5004_C
C5004_D
C5004_E
C5004_F
C5004_G
C5004_H
C5004_I
Percent of seats in upper house received by [PARTY A-F] in current (upper house) election Percent of seats in upper house received by [PARTY A-I] in current (upper house) election Percent of seats in upper house received by [PARTY A-I] in current (upper house) election
PERCENT VOTE - PRESIDENT - PARTY A
PERCENT VOTE - PRESIDENT - PARTY B
PERCENT VOTE - PRESIDENT - PARTY C
PERCENT VOTE - PRESIDENT - PARTY D
PERCENT VOTE - PRESIDENT - PARTY E
PERCENT VOTE - PRESIDENT - PARTY F
PERCENT VOTE - PRESIDENT - PARTY G
PERCENT VOTE - PRESIDENT - PARTY H
PERCENT VOTE - PRESIDENT - PARTY I
A5009_A
A5009_B
A5009_C
A5009_D
A5009_E
A5009_F
B5005_A
B5005_B
B5005_C
B5005_D
B5005_E
B5005_F
B5005_G
B5005_H
B5005_I
C5005_A
C5005_B
C5005_C
C5005_D
C5005_E
C5005_F
C5005_G
C5005_H
C5005_I
If multiple rounds, percent of vote received in first round. If multiple rounds, percent of vote received in first round. If multiple rounds, percent of vote received in first round.
ELECTORAL TURNOUT
ELECTORAL TURNOUT - VERSION 2
A5010
 
B5006M
 
C5006_1
C5006_2
Percentage of Voting Age Population who cast ballots
 
Percentage of Voting Age Population who cast ballots
 
Official voter turnout - Percentage of registered voters.
Official voter turnout - Percentage of voting age population.
PARTY OF THE PRESIDENT BEFORE
    C5007
    Party of the president before the election.
PARTY OF THE PRIME MINISTER BEFORE
    C5008
    Party of the Prime Minister before the election.
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) BEFORE - PARTY A
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) BEFORE - PARTY B
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) BEFORE - PARTY C
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) BEFORE - PARTY D
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) BEFORE - PARTY E
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) BEFORE - PARTY F
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) BEFORE - PARTY G
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) BEFORE - PARTY H
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) BEFORE - PARTY I
  B5007_A
B5007_B
B5007_C
B5007_D
B5007_E
B5007_F
B5007_G
B5007_H
B5007_I
C5009_A
C5009_B
C5009_C
C5009_D
C5009_E
C5009_F
C5009_G
C5009_H
C5009_I
  Number of portfolios (cabinet posts) held by [PARTY A-I] before the election. Number of cabinet posts (portfolios) held by [PARTY A-I] before the election.
SIZE OF THE CABINET BEFORE
  B5008 C5010
  The size of the cabinet before the election. The size of the cabinet before the election.
PARTY OF THE PRESIDENT AFTER
    C5011
    Party of the president after the election.
PARTY OF THE PRIME MINISTER AFTER
    C5012
    Party of the Prime Minister after the election.
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) AFTER - PARTY A
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) AFTER - PARTY B
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) AFTER - PARTY C
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) AFTER - PARTY D
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) AFTER - PARTY E
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) AFTER - PARTY F
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) AFTER - PARTY G
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) AFTER - PARTY H
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) AFTER - PARTY I
  B5009_A
B5009_B
B5009_C
B5009_D
B5009_E
B5009_F
B5009_G
B5009_H
B5009_I
C5013_A
C5013_B
C5013_C
C5013_D
C5013_E
C5013_F
C5013_G
C5013_H
C5013_I
  Number of portfolios (cabinet posts) held by [PARTY A-I] after the election. Number of cabinet posts (portfolios) held by [PARTY A-I] after the election.
SIZE OF THE CABINET AFTER
  B5010 C5014
  The size of the cabinet after the election. The size of the cabinet after the election.
ELECTORAL ALLIANCES PERMITTED IN ELECTION
A5011 B5024 C5030
Were electoral alliances permitted during the election campaign? Were electoral alliances permitted during the election campaign? There are multiple types of electoral alliances/coalitions, but we are explicitly interested in those involving joint lists or candidates - i.e. those where parties compete as a unit during the election. Is this type of electoral coalition legally allowable?
ELECTORAL ALLIANCES IN PRACTICE
    C5031
    Is this type of electoral coalition used in practice, even if not legally allowable?
DID ANY ELECTORAL ALLIANCES FORM?
A5012 B5025 C5032
Did any electoral alliances form? Did any electoral alliances form? Did any electoral alliances form?
MOST SALIENT FACTORS IN ELECTION - 1ST
MOST SALIENT FACTORS IN ELECTION - 2ND
MOST SALIENT FACTORS IN ELECTION - 3RD
MOST SALIENT FACTORS IN ELECTION - 4TH
MOST SALIENT FACTORS IN ELECTION - 5TH
A5013_1
A5013_2
A5013_3
A5013_4
A5013_5
B5022_1
B5022_2
B5022_3
B5022_4
B5022_5
C5019_1
C5019_2
C5019_3
C5019_4
C5019_5
In your view, what are the five most salient factors that affected the outcome of the election (e.g. major scandals; economic events; the presence of an independent actor; specific issues)? In your view, what are the five most salient factors that affected the outcome of the election (e.g. major scandals; economic events; the presence of an independent actor; specific issues)? In your view, what are the five most salient factors that affected the outcome of the election (e.g., major scandals; economic events; the presence of an independent actor; specific issues)?
CONSENSUS ON THE SALIENCE RANKING
  B5023  
  Do you believe there would be general consensus about the importance of these factors among informed observers in the country?  
FAIRNESS OF THE ELECTION
    C5020
    How impartial was the body that administered the election law?
FORMAL COMPLAINTS AGAINST NATIONAL LEVEL RESULTS
    C5021
    Was there a formal complaint against the national level results?
ELECTION IRREGULARITIES
    C5022
    Were there irregularities reported by international election observers?
DATE ELECTION SCHEDULED - MONTH
DATE ELECTION SCHEDULED - DAY
DATE ELECTION SCHEDULED - YEAR
    C5023_1
C5023_2
C5023_3
    On what date was the election originally scheduled to be held?
DATE ELECTION HELD - MONTH
DATE ELECTION HELD - DAY
DATE ELECTION HELD - YEAR
    C5024_1
C5024_2
C5024_3
    On what date was the election actually held?
ELECTION IRREGULARITIES
    C5025
    If the election was held on a different date than scheduled, please explain why?
ELECTION VIOLENCE
    C5026
    To what extent was there violence and voter or candidate intimidation during the election campaign and the election day?
GEOGRAPHIC CONCENTRATION OF VIOLENCE
    C5027
    If there was violence, was it geographically concentrated or national?
POST-ELECTION VIOLENCE
    C5028
    To what extent was there violence following the election?
POST-ELECTION PROTEST
    C5029
    To what extent was there protest following the election?
HEAD OF STATE
A5014 B5052  
Who is the head of state? Who is the head of state?  
HEAD OF STATE - SELECTION
A5015 B5053  
How is the head of state selected? How is the head of state selected?  
HEAD OF STATE - PROCESS IF DIRECT ELECTION
A5016 B5054  
If by direct election, by what process? If by direct election, by what process?  
HEAD OF STATE - 1ST ROUND VICTORY
A5017 B5055  
If by run-off system, what is the threshold for first-round victory? If by run-off system, what is the threshold for first-round victory?  
HEAD OF STATE - ADVANCE TO 2ND ROUND
A5018 B5056  
If by run-off system, what is the threshold to advance to second round? If by run-off system, what is the threshold to advance to second round?  
HEAD OF STATE - 2ND ROUND VICTORY
A5019 B5057  
If by run-off system, what is the threshold for victory in the second round? If by run-off system, what is the threshold for victory in the second round?  
YEAR OF PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION - 1ST
YEAR OF PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION - 2ND
A5020_1
A5020_2
B5058_1
B5058_2
 
If the presidential election was not held concurrently with the legislative election, the year of the presidential election prior to this legislative election is: If the presidential election was not held concurrently with the legislative election, the year of the presidential election prior to this [after this] legislative election is:  
PROCESS IF INDIRECT ELECTION
A5021 B5059  
If by indirect election, by what process? If by indirect election, by what process?  
ELECTORAL COLLEGE - SELECTION OF ELECTORS
  B5060  
  If by electoral college, how are electors chosen?  
ELECTORAL COLLEGE - DELIBERATES
  B5061  
  Does the electoral college deliberate?  
ELECTORAL COLLEGE - VOTING PROCEDURE
  B5062  
  What is the voting procedure used by the electoral college?  
IF BY LEGISLATURE - WHAT CHAMBER(S)
  B5063  
  If by the legislature, by which chamber(s) of the legislature?  
IF BY LEGISLATURE - VOTING PROCEDURE
  B5064  
  If by the legislature, what is the voting procedure used?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT
A5022 B5080  
Who is the Head of Government? Who is the Head of Government?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - ELECTED INDEPENDENTLY
  B5081  
  Is the Head of Government elected independently of the legislature?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - IS THE HEAD OF STATE
  B5082  
  Is the Head of Government also the Head of State?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - SELECTION METHOD (IF INDEP. OF LEGISLATURE)
A5023 B5083  
If the Head of Government is a prime minister, how is the prime minister selected? If the Head of Government is not elected independently of the legislature, how is the Head of Government selected?  
NUMBER OF ELECTED LEGISLATIVE CHAMBERS
A5024 B5030 C5091
Number of elected legislative chambers: Number of elected legislative chambers: Number of elected legislative chambers:
ELECTORAL SEGMENTS - LOWER HOUSE
ELECTORAL SEGMENTS - UPPER HOUSE
A5025_1
A5025_2
B5031_1
B5031_2
 
In some electoral systems, there are electoral districts that are geographically nested but not otherwise related for purposes of seat allocation. In Lithuania, for example, there are 71 single-member districts that operate under a majority runoff system, and also a single nation-wide district that operates under proportional representation (the largest remainders method with the Hare quota). Neither votes nor seats from the single-member districts transfer to the nationwide district, however. The two processes are entirely independent (with voters having one vote in each district). In this case, the nationwide district, although it contains the 71 single-member districts, is not considered to be secondary. It is primary. One might say that there are two segments to the electoral system in such cases. How many segments (as just defined) are there in the electoral system? In some electoral systems, there are electoral districts that are geographically nested but not otherwise related for purposes of seat allocation. In Lithuania, for example, there are 71 single-member districts that operate under a majority runoff system, and also a single nation-wide district that operates under proportional representation (the largest remainders method with the Hare quota). Neither votes nor seats from the single-member districts transfer to the nationwide district, however. The two processes are entirely independent (with voters having one vote in each district). In this case, the nationwide district, although it contains the 71 single-member districts, is not considered to be secondary. It is primary. One might say that there are two segments to the electoral system in such cases. How many segments (as just defined) are there in the electoral system?  
NUMBER OF ELECTORAL SEGMENTS (TIERS)
    C5059
    This variable indicates the number of electoral segments (tiers) in each country.
LINKED ELECTORAL SEGMENTS (TIERS)
    C5060
    This variable indicates whether countries with multiple segments (tiers) have linked (connected) or unlinked (unconnected) segments (tiers). Linkage occurs whenever (i) unused votes from one electoral segment (tier) are used at another level or (ii) the allocation of seats in one segment (tier) is conditional on the seats received in another segment (tier).
DEPENDENT FORMULAE IN MIXED SYSTEMS
    C5061
    This indicates whether the two electoral formulas used in a mixed system are dependent or independent. A dependent mixed system is one in which the application of one formula is dependent on the outcome produced by the other formula. An independent mixed system is one in which the two electoral formulas are implemented independently of each other.
SUBTYPES OF MIXED ELECTORAL SYSTEMS
    C5062
    Sub-types of mixed electoral systems.
PRIMARY DISTRICTS - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT
PRIMARY DISTRICTS - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT
PRIMARY DISTRICTS - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT
PRIMARY DISTRICTS - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT
A5026_1
A5026_2
A5026_3
A5026_4
B5032_1
B5032_2
B5033_3
B5034_4
 
How many primary electoral districts are there? How many primary electoral districts are there?  
NUMBER OF ELECTORAL DISTRICTS - LOWEST TIER - LOWER HOUSE
NUMBER OF ELECTORAL DISTRICTS - SECOND TIER - LOWER HOUSE
NUMBER OF ELECTORAL DISTRICTS - THIRD TIER - LOWER HOUSE
    C5063
C5066
C5069
    Number of electoral districts or constituencies in the [first or lowest/second/third] electoral segment (tier) for the lower house of the legislature.
NUMBER OF SEATS - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT
NUMBER OF SEATS - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT
NUMBER OF SEATS - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT
NUMBER OF SEATS - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT
A5027_1
A5027_2
A5027_3
A5027_4
B5033_1
B5033_2
B5033_3
B5033_4
 
Total number of seats elected in the [first/second] segment of the [lower/upper] house: Total number of seats elected in the [first/second] segment of the [lower/upper] house:  
NUMBER OF SEATS ABOVE THE FIRST SEGMENT (TIER) - LOWER HOUSE
    C5072
    The number of seats allocated in electoral districts or constituencies above the first or lowest segment (tier). This variable may include seats allocated in several different upper segments (tiers).
PERCENTAGE OF SEATS ABOVE THE FIRST SEGMENT (TIER) - LOWER HOUSE
    C5073
    Percentage of seats allocated in electoral districts above the lowest segment (tier).
FUSED VOTE
    C5074
    This indicates whether a fused vote was used for presidential and legislative elections. A fused vote is when a citizen casts a single ballot for the elections of more than one political office. This particular variable captures when the single ballot is for the presidency and the legislature. Citizens are unable to divide their votes among the candidates or lists of different parties. Split-ticket voting is expressly prohibited.
SIZE OF THE LOWER HOUSE
    C5074
    Total number of seats in the lower house of the legislature during the election year.
DISTRICT MAGNITUDE - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT
DISTRICT MAGNITUDE - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT
DISTRICT MAGNITUDE - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT
DISTRICT MAGNITUDE - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT
A5028_1
A5028_2
A5028_3
A5028_4
B5034_1
B5034_2
B5034_3
B5034_4
 
For each primary electoral district, how many members are elected from that district? For each primary electoral district, how many members are elected from that district?  
AVERAGE DISTRICT MAGNITUDE - LOWEST TIER - LOWER HOUSE
AVERAGE DISTRICT MAGNITUDE - SECOND TIER - LOWER HOUSE
AVERAGE DISTRICT MAGNITUDE - THIRD TIER - LOWER HOUSE
    C5064
C5067
C5070
    Average district magnitude in the [first or lowest/second/third] electoral segment (tier). This is calculated as the total number of seats allocated in the [lowest/second/third] segment (tier) divided by the total number of districts in that segment (tier).
SECONDARY DISTRICTS - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT
SECONDARY DISTRICTS - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT
SECONDARY DISTRICTS - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT
SECONDARY DISTRICTS - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT
A5029_1
A5029_2
A5029_3
A5029_4
B5035_1
B5035_2
B5035_3
B5035_4
 
How many secondary electoral districts are there? How many secondary electoral districts are there?  
TERTIARY DISTRICTS - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT
TERTIARY DISTRICTS - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT
TERTIARY DISTRICTS - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT
TERTIARY DISTRICTS - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT
A5030_1
A5030_2
A5030_3
A5030_4
B5036_1
B5036_2
B5036_3
B5036_4
 
How many tertiary electoral districts are there? How many tertiary electoral districts are there?  
COMPULSORY VOTING
A5031 B5037  
Is voting compulsory? Is voting compulsory?  
COMPULSORY VOTING - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
COMPULSORY VOTING - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
COMPULSORY VOTING - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
COMPULSORY VOTING - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
    C5044_1
C5044_2
C5044_3
C5044_4
    Is voting compulsory? Definition: Voting is compulsory if the law states that all those who have the right to vote are obliged to exercise that right.
VOTES CAST - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
VOTES CAST - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
VOTES CAST - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
VOTES CAST - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
A5032_1
A5032_2
A5032_3
A5032_4
B5038_1
B5038_2
B5038_3
B5038_4
C5038_1
C5038_2
C5038_3
C5038_4
How many votes do they or can they cast? How many votes do they or can they cast? How many votes do voters cast or can cast? In systems where voters rank order the candidates, if there are 10 candidates (for example), the response to this question should be 10.
VOTING PROCEDURE - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
VOTING PROCEDURE - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
VOTING PROCEDURE - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
VOTING PROCEDURE - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
A5033_1
A5033_2
A5033_3
A5033_4
B5039_1
B5039_2
B5039_3
B5039_4
C5039_1
C5039_2
C5039_3
C5039_4
With each vote allocated in this segment, voters select: With each vote allocated in this segment, voters select: Do they vote for candidates (not party lists) or party lists? Definition: Party bloc voting is used in multi-member districts where voters cast a single party-centered vote for their party of choice; the party with the most votes wins all of the district seats.
VOTING ROUNDS - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
VOTING ROUNDS - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
VOTING ROUNDS - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
VOTING ROUNDS - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
    C5040_1
C5040_2
C5040_3
C5040_4
    How many rounds of voting are there?
TRANSFERABLE VOTES
  B5040  
  Are the votes transferable?  
TRANSFERABLE VOTES - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
TRANSFERABLE VOTES - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
TRANSFERABLE VOTES - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
TRANSFERABLE VOTES - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
    C5042_1
C5042_2
C5042_3
C5042_4
    Are the votes transferable? Definition: In systems with preferential voting, a voter can express a list of preferences. E.g., votes can be cast by putting a '1' in the column next to the voter's preferred candidate, a '2' beside their second favorite candidate and so on. Votes are counted according to the first preferences and any candidates who have achieved the predetermined quota are elected. To decide which of the remaining candidates are elected the votes are transferred from candidates who have more than the necessary number to achieve the quota and from the candidate with the least number of votes. An example of this is the election in Ireland in 2002.
CUMULATED VOTES - IF MORE THAN ONE CAN BE CAST
  B5041  
  If more than one vote can be cast, can they be cumulated?  
CUMULATED VOTES - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
CUMULATED VOTES - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
CUMULATED VOTES - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
CUMULATED VOTES - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
    C5043_1
C5043_2
C5043_3
C5043_4
    If more than one vote can be cast, can they be cumulated? Definition: Cumulative voting refers to systems in which voters are allowed to cast more than one vote for a single candidate.
ELECTORAL FORMULA - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT
ELECTORAL FORMULA - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT
ELECTORAL FORMULA - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT
ELECTORAL FORMULA - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT
A5034_1
A5034_2
A5034_3
A5034_4
B5043_1
B5043_2
B5043_3
B5043_4
 
What electoral formula(e) are used? What electoral formula(e) are used?  
ELECTORAL FORMULA - LOWEST TIER - LOWER HOUSE
ELECTORAL FORMULA - SECOND TIER - LOWER HOUSE
ELECTORAL FORMULA - THIRD TIER - LOWER HOUSE
    C5065
C5068
C5071
    The precise electoral formula used in the [first or lowest/second/third] electoral segment (tier) of the lower house.
IS THERE PARTY THRESHOLD - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
IS THERE PARTY THRESHOLD - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
IS THERE PARTY THRESHOLD - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
IS THERE PARTY THRESHOLD - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
    C5045_1
C5045_2
C5045_3
C5045_4
    Are there legally mandated thresholds that a party must exceed before it is eligible to receive seats?
PARTY THRESHOLD - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
PARTY THRESHOLD - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
PARTY THRESHOLD - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
PARTY THRESHOLD - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
A5035_1
A5035_2
A5035_3
A5035_4
B5042_1
B5042_2
B5042_3
B5042_4
C5046_1
C5046_2
C5046_3
C5046_4
Are there legally mandated thresholds that a party must exceed before it is eligible to receive seats? If so, what is the threshold? (percentage of vote) Are there legally mandated thresholds that a party must exceed before it is eligible to receive seats? If so, what is the threshold? (percentage of vote) If yes, what is the threshold?
UNIT FOR THE THRESHOLD - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
UNIT FOR THE THRESHOLD - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
UNIT FOR THE THRESHOLD - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
UNIT FOR THE THRESHOLD - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
    C5047_1
C5047_2
C5047_3
C5047_4
    If yes, what is the unit for the threshold mentioned?
PARTY LISTS - CLOSED, OPEN, OR FLEXIBLE
  B5044  
  If there are lists, are they closed, open, or flexible?  
PARTY LISTS - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
PARTY LISTS - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
PARTY LISTS - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
PARTY LISTS - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
    C5041_1
C5041_2
C5041_3
C5041_4
    If there are lists, are they closed, open, flexible, or is there party bloc voting?
CAN PARTIES RUN JOINT LISTS
A5036 B5045  
Can parties run joint lists? Can parties run joint lists?  
REQUIREMENTS FOR JOINT PARTY LISTS
A5037 B5049 C5033
If joint lists are possible, are they subject to different regulations than single-party lists? For example higher thresholds, different numbers of candidates that may appear on the list, etc. If joint lists are possible, are they subject to different regulations than single-party lists? For example higher thresholds, different numbers of candidates that may appear on the list, etc. If joint lists are possible, are they subject to different regulations than single-party lists? For example higher thresholds, different numbers of candidates that may appear on the list, etc.
THE POSSIBILITY OF APPARENTEMENT
A5038 B5046 C5034
Is there apparentement or linking of party lists? Is there apparentement or linking of party lists? Is there apparentement or linking of lists?
TYPES OF APPARENTEMENT AGREEMENTS
A5039 B5050 C5035
If apparentement is possible, what lists can participate in such agreements? If apparentement is possible, what lists can participate in such agreements? If apparentement is possible, what lists can participate in such agreements?
MULTI-PARTY ENDORSEMENTS
A5040 B5047 C5036
Can candidates run with the endorsement of more than one party? Can candidates run with the endorsement of more than one party? Can candidates run with the endorsement of more than one party?
MULTI-PARTY ENDORSEMENTS ON BALLOT
A5041 B5051 C5037
If candidates can run with the endorsement of more than one party, is this reflected on the ballot? If candidates can run with the endorsement of more than one party, is this reflected on the ballot? If candidates can run with the endorsement of more than one party, is this reflected on the ballot?
ALLY PARTY SUPPORT
A5042 B5048  
Can parties withdraw their lists or candidates in some constituencies, urging their supporters there to vote for an ally's list or candidate? Can parties withdraw their lists or candidates in some constituencies, urging their supporters there to vote for an ally's list or candidate?  
HEAD OF STATE - INTRODUCE LEGISLATION
A5043 B5065  
Does the head of state have power of introduce legislation? Does the head of state have power of introduce legislation?  
HEAD OF STATE - EXPEDITED ACTION
A5044 B5066  
Does the Head of State have power to require expedited action on specific legislation? If yes, what is the default if the legislature takes no action? Does the Head of State have power to require expedited action on specific legislation? (i.e., set a deadline by which the legislature is required to act on the bill)?  
HEAD OF STATE - PACKAGE VETO
A5045 B5067  
Does the Head of State have package veto powers? If yes, what is the requirement to override the veto? Does the Head of State have package veto powers? If yes, what is the requirement to override the veto?  
HEAD OF STATE - PARTIAL VETO
A5046 B5068  
Does Head of State partial veto powers? If yes, what is the requirement to override the partial veto? Does the Head of State have partial veto powers? If yes, what is the requirement to override the veto?  
HEAD OF STATE - LEGISLATE BY DECREE
A5047 B5069  
Does the Head of State have power to legislate by decree? If yes, does this require that the legislature must first specifically delegate decree authority to the Head of State by statute? If yes, are there restrictions on the policy areas in which the Head of State can legislate by decree? If yes, are there other restrictions on the Head of State's authority to legislate by decree? Does the Head of State have power to issue decrees with the power of law? (to legislate by decree?)  
HEAD OF STATE - EMERGENCY POWERS
A5048 B5070  
Does the Head of State emergency powers? If yes, what actions can the head of state take under emergency authority? If yes, under what conditions can the head of state invoke emergency authority? If yes, what restrictions are there on the head of state's authority to invoke and exercise emergency authority? Does the Head of State have emergency powers?  
HEAD OF STATE - POSTPONE ELECTION
A5049    
Do emergency powers allow head of state to postpone scheduled elections or extend presidential/legislative terms indefinitely?    
HEAD OF STATE - NEGOTIATE AGREEMENTS
A5050 B5071  
Does the Head of State have power to negotiate treaties and international agreements? If yes, what other requirements are there for approval of treaties and international agreements negotiated by the head of state? Does the Head of State have power to negotiate treaties and international agreements? If yes, what other requirements are there for approval of treaties and international agreements negotiated by the head of state?  
HEAD OF STATE - COMMANDER OF FORCES
A5051 B5072  
Does the Head of State have power as commander of the armed forces? Does the Head of State have power as commander of the armed forces?  
HEAD OF STATE - PROMOTION OF OFFICERS
A5052    
If yes, does the Head of State control promotions of high ranking officers?    
HEAD OF STATE - DEMOTION OF OFFICERS
A5053    
If yes, can the Head of State dismiss or demote high-ranking officers?    
HEAD OF STATE - MOBILIZE TROOPS
A5054    
If yes, can the Head of State mobilize and demobilize troops?    
HEAD OF STATE - INTRODUCE REFERENDA
A5055 B5073  
Does the head of State have power to introduce referenda? If yes, under what conditions? Does the head of State have power to introduce referenda or plebiscites? If yes, under what conditions?  
HEAD OF STATE - REFER LEGISLATION TO JUDICIARY
A5056 B5074  
Does the Head of State have the power to refer legislation to the judicial branch for review of constitutionality? Does the Head of State have the power to refer legislation to the judicial branch for review of constitutionality?  
HEAD OF STATE - LEGISLATIVE SESSIONS
A5057 B5075  
Does the Head of State have power to convene special legislative sessions? If yes, is this the Head of State's power exclusively, or can any other(s) do this as well? Does the Head of State have power to convene special legislative sessions?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - CABINET - NAME MINISTERS
A5058 B5084_1  
If there is a prime minister, what authorities does the prime minister have over the composition of the cabinet? Does the Head of Government have the authority to name ministers and assign portfolios alone?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - CABINET - NOMINATE MINISTERS
  B5084_2  
  Does the Head of Government have the authority to nominate ministers for approval by the president?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - CABINET - REVIEW MINISTERIAL NOMINATIONS
  B5084_3  
  Does the Head of Government have the authority to review and approve ministerial nominations made by the president?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - CABINET - DISMISS MINISTERS
  B5084_4  
  Does the Head of Government have the authority to dismiss ministers and reassign portfolios at own discretion?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - CABINET - OTHER
  B5084_5  
  Does the Head of Government have some other authorities over the cabinet (please explain)?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - POLICY - OTHER
  B5084_6  
  If there is a Head of Government, What authority does the Head of Government have over the policy making process? Other (please explain)?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - POLICY - CHAIR CABINET MEETINGS
A5059 B5085_1  
If there is a prime minister, what authorities does the prime minister have over the policy making process? Chairs cabinet meetings? If there is a Head of Government, What authority does the Head of Government have over the policy making process? Chairs cabinet meetings?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - POLICY - LEGISLATURE SCHEDULES
A5060 B5085_2  
If there is a prime minister, what authorities does the prime minister have over the policy making process? Determines schedule of issues to be considered by the legislature? If there is a Head of Government, What authority does the Head of Government have over the policy making process? Determines schedule of issues to be considered by the legislature?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - POLICY - POLICY ALTERNATIVES
A5061 B5085_3  
If there is a prime minister, what authorities does the prime minister have over the policy making process? Determines which alternatives will be voted on by the legislature and in which order? If there is a Head of Government, What authority does the Head of Government have over the policy making process? Determines which alternatives will be voted on by the legislature, and in which order?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - POLICY - REFERS POLICY TO COMMITTEE
A5062 B5085_4  
If there is a prime minister, what authorities does the prime minister have over the policy making process? Refers legislative proposals to party or legislative committees? If there is a Head of Government, What authority does the Head of Government have over the policy making process? Refers legislative proposals to party or legislative committees?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - POLICY - VOTES OF CONFIDENCE
A5063 B5085_5  
If there is a prime minister, what authorities does the prime minister have over the policy making process? Calls votes of confidence in government? If there is a Head of Government, What authority does the Head of Government have over the policy making process? Calls votes of confidence in government?  
CABINET DISMISSAL - HEAD OF STATE
A5064 B5086_1  
By what method(s) can cabinet members, or the entire cabinet, be dismissed? By what method(s) can the cabinet be dismissed? By the head of state acting alone?  
CABINET DISMISSAL - HEAD OF GOVERNMENT
  B5086_2  
  By what method(s) can the cabinet be dismissed? By the prime minister acting alone?  
CABINET DISMISSAL - MAJORITY OF LEGISLATURE
  B5086_3  
  By what method(s) can the cabinet be dismissed? By majority vote of the legislature where a majority of all legislators is required?  
CABINET DISMISSAL - PLURALITY OF LEGISLATURE
  B5086_4  
  By what method(s) can the cabinet be dismissed? By majority vote of the legislature where a majority of those legislators voting is required?  
CABINET DISMISSAL - COMBINATION
  B5086_5  
  By what method(s) can the cabinet be dismissed? By some combination of the above, acting in concert (Please explain)?  
CABINET DISMISSAL - OTHER
  B5086_6  
  By what method(s) can the cabinet be dismissed? Other (Please explain)?  
DISSOLUTION OF LEGISLATURE
A5065 B5087  
Can the legislature be dissolved prior to regularly schedule elections? Can the legislature be dissolved prior to regularly schedule elections?  
DISSOLUTION OF LEGISLATURE - HEAD OF STATE
  B5087_1  
  Can the legislature be dissolved prior to regularly scheduled elections? If yes - By the head of state acting alone?  
DISSOLUTION OF LEGISLATURE - HEAD OF GOVERNMENT
  B5087_2  
  Can the legislature be dissolved prior to regularly scheduled elections? If yes - By the prime minister acting alone?  
DISSOLUTION OF LEGISLATURE - MAJORITY OF LEGISLATURE
  B5087_3  
  Can the legislature be dissolved prior to regularly scheduled elections? If yes - By majority vote of the legislature?  
DISSOLUTION OF LEGISLATURE - COMBINATION
  B5087_4  
  Can the legislature be dissolved prior to regularly scheduled elections? If yes - By some combination of the above, acting in concert (Please explain)?  
DISSOLUTION OF LEGISLATURE - OTHER
  B5087_5  
  Can the legislature be dissolved prior to regularly scheduled elections? If yes - Other (Please explain)?  
RESTRICTIONS ON DISSOLVING LEGISLATURE
A5066 B5088  
... are there restrictions on when and how the legislature can be dissolved? If the legislature can be dissolved prior to regularly scheduled elections, are there restrictions on when and how the legislature can be dissolved?  
RESTRICTIONS ON DISSOLVING LEGISLATURE - TIMING
  B5088_1  
  If the legislature can be dissolved prior to regularly scheduled elections, are there restrictions on when and how the legislature can be dissolved? On the timing of dissolution?  
RESTRICTIONS ON DISSOLVING LEGISLATURE - INACTION
  B5088_2  
  If the legislature can be dissolved prior to regularly scheduled elections, are there restrictions on when and how the legislature can be dissolved? As a response to action/inaction by the legislature?  
RESTRICTIONS ON DISSOLVING LEGISLATURE - OTHER
  B5088_3  
  If the legislature can be dissolved prior to regularly scheduled elections, are there restrictions on when and how the legislature can be dissolved? Other (Explain)?  
SECOND CHAMBER OF THE LEGISLATURE
  B5089  
  Is there a second chamber of the legislature?  
IF THERE IS SECOND CHAMBER - METHOD OF ELECTION
  B5090  
  If there is a second chamber of the legislature, what is the method of election?  
IF THERE IS SECOND CHAMBER - COMPOSITION
  B5091  
  If there is a second chamber and it is indirectly elected, are those who choose its members:  
IF THERE IS SECOND CHAMBER - EXCLUSIVE LEGISLATIVE POWERS
  B5092  
  If there is a second chamber, does it have specific and exclusive legislative powers?  
IF THERE IS SECOND CHAMBER - EXCLUSIVE LEGISLATIVE POWERS
  B5092  
  If there is a second chamber, does it have specific and exclusive legislative powers?  
IF THERE IS SECOND CHAMBER - POWER OVER THE CABINET
  B5093  
  If there is a second chamber, does it have the power to remove the cabinet or censure its ministers?  
CONSTITUTIONAL FEDERAL STRUCTURE
  B5094 C5090
  Is there a constitutionally guaranteed division of power between the central government and regional and/or local governments? Is country federal?
CENTRAL POWER OVER PERIPHERY
  B5095  
  Does the central government have the power to remove elected officials of regional and/or local governments?  
FREEDOM HOUSE RATING - TIME T
FREEDOM HOUSE RATING - TIME T-1
FREEDOM HOUSE RATING - TIME T-2
    C5050_1
C5050_2
C5050_3
    These variables report Freedom House's rating of freedom in a country at three time periods: the election year (time T), one year before election (T-1), and two years before election (T-2). Each country and territory is assigned a numerical rating, on a scale of 1 to 7. A rating of 1 indicates the highest degree of freedom and 7 the least amount of freedom. CSES reports average of the "Political Rights" and "Civil Liberties" scores.
DEMOCRACY-AUTOCRACY - POLITY IV RATING - TIME T
DEMOCRACY-AUTOCRACY - POLITY IV RATING - TIME T-1
DEMOCRACY-AUTOCRACY - POLITY IV RATING - TIME T-2
    C5050_1
C5050_2
C5050_3
    These variables report POLITY IV ratings of institutionalized democracy versus autocracy in a country, at three time periods: the election year (time T), one year before election (T-1), and two years before election (T-2). CSES reports the original variable POLITY - Combined Polity Score. The variable is constructed by subtracting the autocracy score from the democracy score; the resulting scale ranges from +10 (strongly democratic) to -10 (strongly autocratic).
AGE OF THE CURRENT REGIME
    C5052
    The number of years since the most recent regime change (defined by a three-point change in the POLITY score over a period of three years or less) or the end of transition period defined by the lack of stable political institutions (denoted by a standardized authority score) [From Polity IV Project Dataset Users' Manual].
REGIME: TYPE OF EXECUTIVE
    C5052
    Classification of political regimes in which democracies are distinguished by the type of executive (0 Dictatorship, 1 Parliamentary Democracy, 2 Mixed Democracy, 3 Presidential Democracy).
GDP GROWTH - ANNUAL % (WORLD BANK) - TIME T
GDP GROWTH - ANNUAL % (WORLD BANK) - TIME T-1
GDP GROWTH - ANNUAL % (WORLD BANK) - TIME T-2
    C5080_1
C5080_2
C5080_3
    These variables report World Bank estimate of the annual GDP growth, at three time periods: the election year (time T), one year before election (T-1), and two years before election (T-2).
GDP PER CAPITA, PPP (WORLD BANK) - TIME T
GDP PER CAPITA, PPP (WORLD BANK) - TIME T-1
GDP PER CAPITA, PPP (WORLD BANK) - TIME T-2
    C5081_1
C5081_2
C5081_3
    These variables report World Bank estimate of the GDP per capita, at three time periods: the election year (time T), one year before election (T-1), and two years before election (T-2).
INFLATION, GDP DEFLATOR (ANNUAL %) (WORLD BANK) - TIME T
INFLATION, GDP DEFLATOR (ANNUAL %) (WORLD BANK) - TIME T-1
INFLATION, GDP DEFLATOR (ANNUAL %) (WORLD BANK) - TIME T-2
    C5082_1
C5082_2
C5082_3
    These variables report World Bank estimate of Inflation at three time periods: the election year (time T), one year before election (T-1), and two years before election (T-2).
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (UNDP) - TIME T
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (UNDP) - TIME T-1
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (UNDP) - TIME T-2
    C5083_1
C5083_2
C5083_3
    These variables report UNDP Human Development Index (HDI) at three time periods: the election year (time T), one year before election (T-1), and two years before election (T-2).
POPULATION, TOTAL (WORLD BANK) - TIME T
POPULATION, TOTAL (WORLD BANK) - TIME T-1
POPULATION, TOTAL (WORLD BANK) - TIME T-2
    C5084_1
C5084_2
C5084_3
    These variables report World Bank estimate of the total population size, at three time periods: the election year (time T), one year before election (T-1), and two years before election (T-2).
UNEMPLOYMENT, TOTAL (WORLD BANK) - TIME T
UNEMPLOYMENT, TOTAL (WORLD BANK) - TIME T-1
UNEMPLOYMENT, TOTAL (WORLD BANK) - TIME T-2
    C5085_1
C5085_2
C5085_3
    These variables report World Bank estimate of the unemployment rate (% of total labor force), at three time periods: the election year (time T), one year before election (T-1), and two years before election (T-2).
ELECTORAL RESULTS DATA AVAILABLE
    C5092
    Are electoral results data available?