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Variable List > Full Variable List

The following list of variables was produced from the Full Release of CSES Module 1 (August 4, 2003 version), the second Advance Release of CSES Module 2 (December 15, 2004 version), and the first Advance Release of CSES Module 3 (March 29, 2010 version).

The list is being provided to help in understanding what content is available from CSES, and to compare the content available in each module. However, the list is not intended to replace use of the codebook and other study documentation, so please refer instead to those materials when you are ready to begin your analysis of the data.

The first row of each entry, in orange, is the variable label. The second row of each entry, in grey, contains the variable names from the dataset. The third row of each entry, in white, is the variable description or question text. The second and third rows are divided into three columns - the first for Module 1 (1996-2001), the second for Module 2 (2001-2006), and the third for Module 3 (2006-2011).

Because the list merges multiple modules, questions do not necessarily appear in the order in which they were asked, and variables do not necessarily appear in the same order as in the codebooks.

CSES Module 1
(1996-2001)
CSES Module 2
(2001-2006)
CSES Module 3
(2006-2011)

Administrative Variables

DATASET
A1001 B1001 C1001
Dataset. Dataset. Dataset.
DATASET VERSION
A1002 B1002 C1002
Dataset version. Dataset version. Dataset version.
ID VARIABLE - ELECTION STUDY (NUMERIC POLITY)
A1003 B1003 C1003
Election Study Identifier, with Numeric Polity Component. Election Study Identifier, with Numeric Polity Component. Election Study Identifier: Numeric Polity Code and Election Year.
ID VARIABLE - ELECTION STUDY (ALPHABETIC POLITY)
A1004 B1004 C1004
Election Study Identifier, with Alphabetic Polity Component. Election Study Identifier, with Alphabetic Polity Component. Election Study Identifier: Alphabetic Polity Code and Election Year.
ID VARIABLE - RESPONDENT
A1005 B1005 C1005
Respondent Identifier, unique across dataset. Respondent Identifier, unique across dataset. Respondent Identifier.
ID COMPONENT - POLITY
A1006 B1006 C1006
Polity Identifier. Polity Identifier. Polity Identifier.
ID COMPONENT - SAMPLE COMPONENT
A1007 B1007 C1007
In some cases, analysts may wish to consider regions of countries or other sample components as units of analysis, rather than the elections themselves. This variable identifies these sample components. Where these sample components do not exist this variable reports 001. In some cases, analysts may wish to consider regions of countries or other sample components units of analysis, rather than the countries themselves. This variable identifies these sample components. Where these sample components do not exist this variable reports 001. In some cases, analysts may wish to consider regions of countries or other sample components units of analysis, rather than the countries themselves. This variable identifies these sample components. Where these sample components do not exist this variable is coded 001.
ID COMPONENT - ELECTION YEAR
A1008 B1008 C1008
Election year. Election year. Election year.
ID COMPONENT - RESPONDENT WITHIN ELECTION STUDY
A1009 B1009 C1009
Respondent identifier. Respondent identifier. Respondent identifier.
ORIGINAL WEIGHT: SAMPLE
ORIGINAL WEIGHT: DEMOGRAPHIC
ORIGINAL WEIGHT: POLITICAL
A1010_1
A1010_2
A1010_3
B1010_1
B1010_2
B1010_3
C1010_1
C1010_2
C1010_3
     
FACTOR: MEAN OF SAMPLE WEIGHT
FACTOR: MEAN OF DEMOGRAPHIC WEIGHT
FACTOR: MEAN OF POLITICAL WEIGHT
A1011_1
A1011_2
A1011_3
B1011_1
B1011_2
B1011_3
C1011_1
C1011_2
C1011_3
     
POLITY WEIGHT: SAMPLE
POLITY WEIGHT: DEMOGRAPHIC
POLITY WEIGHT: POLITICAL
A1012_1
A1012_2
A1012_3
B1012_1
B1012_2
B1012_3
C1012_1
C1012_2
C1012_3
     
FACTOR: SAMPLE SIZE ADJUSTMENT
A1013 B1013 C1013
     
DATASET WEIGHT: SAMPLE
DATASET WEIGHT: DEMOGRAPHIC
DATASET WEIGHT: POLITICAL
A1014_1
A1014_2
A1014_3
B1014_1
B1014_2
B1014_3
C1014_1
C1014_2
C1014_3
     
ELECTION TYPE
A1015 B1015 C1015
Type of election. Type of election. Type of election.
DATE 1ST ROUND ELECTION BEGAN - MONTH
DATE 1ST ROUND ELECTION BEGAN - DAY
DATE 1ST ROUND ELECTION BEGAN - YEAR
DATE 2ND ROUND ELECTION BEGAN - MONTH
DATE 2ND ROUND ELECTION BEGAN - DAY
DATE 2ND ROUND ELECTION BEGAN - YEAR
A1016
A1017
A1018
A1019
A1020
A1021
B1016
B1017
B1018
B1019
B1020
B1021
C1016
C1017
C1018
C1019
C1020
C1021
Date [first round/second round] election began. Date [first round/second round] election began. Date [first round/second round] election began.
STUDY TIMING
A1022 B1022 C1022
Timing of study relative to election. Timing of study relative to election. Timing of study relative to election.
MODE OF INTERVIEW
A1023 B1023 C1023
Mode of interview. Mode of interview. Mode of interview.
INTERVIEWER WITHIN ELECTION STUDY
A1024 B1024 C1024
Interviewer identification variable, within election study. Interviewer identification variable, within election study. Interviewer identification variable, within election study.
INTERVIEWER GENDER
A1025 B1025 C1025
Gender of interviewer. Gender of interviewer. Gender of interviewer.
DATE QUESTIONNAIRE ADMINISTERED - MONTH
DATE QUESTIONNAIRE ADMINISTERED - DAY
DATE QUESTIONNAIRE ADMINISTERED - YEAR
A1026
A1027
A1028
B1026
B1027
B1028
C1026
C1027
C1028
Date that the questionnaire was administered. Date that the questionnaire was administered. Date questionnaire administered.
DAYS INTERVIEW CONDUCTED POST ELECTION
A2026 B2032 C2032
Number of days after the election interview conducted. Number of days after the election interview conducted. Number of days after the election interview conducted.

Demographic Variables

AGE
A2001 B2001 C2001
Age of respondent (in years). Age of respondent (in years). Age of respondent (in years).
GENDER
A2002 B2002  
Gender of respondent. Gender of respondent. Gender of respondent.
EDUCATION
A2003 B2003 C2003
Highest level of education of the respondent. Education of the respondent. Education of the respondent.
MARITAL STATUS
A2004 B2004 C2004
Marital status of respondent. Respondent's marital status. Respondent's marital or civil union status.
UNION MEMBERSHIP
A2005 B2005 C2005
Union membership of respondent. Union membership of respondent. Union membership of respondent.
UNION MEMBERSHIP OF OTHERS IN HOUSEHOLD
A2006 B2006 C2006
Someone in household other than respondent is a member of a union. Someone in household other than respondent is a member of a union. Someone in household other than respondent is a member of a union.
BUSINESS OR EMPLOYERS' ASSOCIATION MEMBERSHIP
  B2007 C2007
  R is a member of a business or employers' association. R is a member of a business or employers' association.
FARMERS' ASSOCIATION MEMBERSHIP
  B2008 C2008
  R is a member of a farmers' association. R is a member of a farmers' association.
PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATION MEMBERSHIP
  B2009 C2009
  R is a member of a professional association. R is a member of a professional association.
CURRENT EMPLOYMENT STATUS
A2007 B2010 C2010
Current employment status of respondent. Current employment status of respondent. Current employment status of respondent.
MAIN OCCUPATION
A2008 B2011 C2011
Main occupation of respondent. Main occupation of respondent. Main occupation of respondent.
SOCIO ECONOMIC STATUS
  B2012 C2012
  Respondent's socio economic status. Respondent's socio economic status.
EMPLOYMENT TYPE - PUBLIC OR PRIVATE
A2009 B2013 C2013
Whether respondent's employment is private or public. Whether respondent's employment is private or public. Whether respondent's employment is private or public.
INDUSTRIAL SECTOR
A2010 B2014 C2014
Industrial sector of respondent's employment. Industrial sector of respondent's employment. Industrial sector of respondent's employment.
SPOUSE: CURRENT EMPLOYMENT STATUS
  B2015 C2015
  Current employment status of respondent's spouse. Current employment status of respondent's spouse.
SPOUSE: OCCUPATION
A2011 B2016 C2016
Occupation of chief wage earner/spouse. Spouse's occupation. Spouse's occupation.
SPOUSE: SOCIO ECONOMIC STATUS
  B2017 C2017
  Spouse's socio economic status. Spouse's socio economic status.
SPOUSE: EMPLOYMENT TYPE - PUBLIC OR PRIVATE
  B2018 C2018
  Whether spouse's employment is private or public. Whether spouse's employment is private or public.
SPOUSE: INDUSTRIAL SECTOR
  B2019 C2019
  Industrial sector of respondent's employment. Industrial sector of spouse's employment.
HOUSEHOLD INCOME
A2012 B2020 C2020
Household income quintile appropriate to the respondent. Household income quintile appropriate to the respondent. Household income quintile appropriate to the respondent.
NUMBER IN HOUSEHOLD
A2013 B2021 C2021
Exact number of persons in household - that is, the number of persons living together in the housing unit excluding paid employees and persons who pay for rent for a room. Exact number of persons in household - that is, the number of persons living together in the housing unit excluding paid employees and persons who pay for rent for a room. Exact number of persons in household - that is, the number of persons living together in the housing unit excluding paid employees and persons who pay for rent for a room.
NUMBER IN HOUSEHOLD UNDER AGE 18
A2014 B2022 C2022
Number of people in household under the age of 18. Number of people in household under the age of 18. Number of people in household under the age of 18.
RELIGIOUS SERVICES ATTENDANCE
A2015 B2023 C2023
Attendance at religious services. Attendance at religious services. Attendance at religious services.
RELIGIOSITY
A2016 B2024 C2024
Religiosity. Religiosity. Religiosity.
RELIGIOUS DENOMINATION
A2017 B2025 C2025
Religious denomination. Religious denomination. Religious denomination.
LANGUAGE USUALLY SPOKEN AT HOME
A2018 B2026 C2026
This variable reports the language usually spoken in the respondents' household. If more than one language is spoken at home, this variable reports the language spoken most of the time. This variable reports the language usually spoken in the respondents' household. If more than one language is spoken at home, this variable reports the language spoken most of the time. This variable reports the language usually spoken in the respondents' household. If more than one language is spoken at home, this variable reports the language spoken most of the time.
REGION OF RESIDENCE
A2019 B2027 C2027
This variable reports the respondents' region of residence using coding categories not more detailed than the autonomous regions in Spain, or the Laender in Germany. Regions are usually (but not always) based upon the social, cultural, or historical differences (though some correspond to administrative regions) that manifest themselves in political cleavages. This variable reports the respondent's region of residence. Regions are usually (but not always) based upon the social, cultural, or historical differences (though some correspond to administrative regions) that manifest themselves in political cleavages This variable reports the respondent's region of residence. Regions are usually (but not always) based upon the social, cultural, or historical differences (though some correspond to administrative regions) that manifest themselves in political cleavages
RACE
A2020 B2028 C2028
Race of respondent. Race of respondent. This item reports the respondent's race. This variable is coded according to national standards.
ETHNICITY
A2021 B2029 C2029
This variable reports the ethnic identity of respondents. This variable reports the ethnic identity of respondents. This variable reports the ethnic identity of respondents.
RURAL OR URBAN RESIDENCE
A2022 B2030 C2030
Rural/Urban Residence. Rural/Urban Residence. Rural/Urban Residence.
PRIMARY ELECTORAL DISTRICT
A2027 B2031 C2031
Primary electoral district of respondent. Primary electoral district of respondent. Primary electoral district of respondent.

Survey Module Variables

POLITICAL PARTICIPATION: PERSUADE OTHERS
POLITICAL PARTICIPATION: CAMPAIGN ACTIVITIES
  B3001_1
B3001_2
 
  Here is a list of things some people do during elections. Which if any did you do during the most recent election? ...talked to other people to persuade them to vote for a particular party or candidate? ....showed your support for a particular party or candidate by, for example, attending a meeting, putting up a poster, or in some other way?  
HOW OFTEN DID R PERSUADE OTHERS
HOW OFTEN DID R PARTICIPATE IN CAMPAIGN ACTIVITIES
  B3002_1
B3002_2
 
  How often did you do this? Would you say frequently? Occasionally? Rarely?  
CONTACTED BY CANDIDATE OR PARTY DURING CAMPAIGN
  B3003  
  During the last campaign did a candidate or anyone from a political party contact you to persuade you to vote for them?  
CURRENT ELECTION: DID RESPONDENT CAST A BALLOT 1
CURRENT ELECTION: DID RESPONDENT CAST A BALLOT 2
A2028 B3004_1
B3004_2
C3021_1
C3021_2
Whether or not respondent cast a ballot (regardless of whether the ballot was valid). Whether or not respondent cast a ballot (regardless of whether the ballot was valid). This item ascertains whether or not the respondent cast a ballot, regardless of whether or not it was valid.
CURRENT ELECTION: IF YOU HAD VOTED - FIRST MENTION
CURRENT ELECTION: IF YOU HAD VOTED - SECOND MENTION
CURRENT ELECTION: IF YOU HAD VOTED - THIRD MENTION
CURRENT ELECTION: IF YOU HAD VOTED - FOURTH MENTION
    C3022_1
C3022_2
C3022_3
C3022_4
    If you would have voted, which [party or parties/candidate or candidates] would you have voted for?
CURRENT ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - PRESIDENT 1
CURRENT ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - PRESIDENT 2
A2029 B3005_1
B3005_2
C3023_1
C3023_2
Party that respondent voted for: president or party affiliation of candidate voted for. This variable reports the presidential candidate or party affiliation of the presidential candidate for whom the respondent voted. This variable reports the respondent's vote choice for president.
CURRENT ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - LOWER HOUSE 1
CURRENT ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - LOWER HOUSE 2
  B3006_1
B3006_2
 
  This variable reports the vote(s) cast by the respondent in lower house elections.  
CURRENT ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - UPPER HOUSE 1
CURRENT ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - UPPER HOUSE 2
CURRENT ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - UPPER HOUSE 3
CURRENT ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - UPPER HOUSE 4
  B3007_1
B3007_2
B3007_3
B3007_4
 
  This variable reports the vote(s) cast by the respondent in UPPER house elections.  
PARTY LIST VOTED FOR - DISTRICT / CURRENT ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - PARTY LIST 1
CURRENT ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - PARTY LIST 2
CURRENT ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - PARTY LIST 3
CURRENT ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - PARTY LIST 4
A2030   C3024_1
C3024_2
C3024_3
C3024_4
In systems where respondent had option of voting directly for a party list in district-level elections, party list that respondent voted for.   This variable reports the respondent's vote choice for party list.
PARTY OF CANDIDATE VOTED FOR - DISTRICT /
CURRENT ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - DISTRICT CANDIDATE 1
CURRENT ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - DISTRICT CANDIDATE 2
CURRENT ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - DISTRICT CANDIDATE 3
CURRENT ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - DISTRICT CANDIDATE 4
A2031   C3025_1
C3025_2
C3025_3
C3025_4
In systems where respondent had option of voting directly for a candidate or candidates in district-level election, party of candidate respondent votes for.   This variable reports the respondent's vote choice for district candidate.
CURRENT ELECTION: DID R CAST CANDIDATE PREFERENCE VOTE
A2032 B3008 C3026
In systems where respondent's primary vote was for a party list, but respondent had option of voting for individual candidates on the chosen list, in district-level election. For elections in which the respondent can vote for (or rank) candidates a chosen party list (i.e. where lists are "open" or flexible), this variable reports whether or not the respondent cast a preference vote. This variable reports whether or not the respondent cast a preference vote for a candidate.
DID R CONSIDER VOTING FOR OTHERS
    C3027
    Did you consider voting for any other [party or parties/candidate or candidates]?
R DID CONSIDER VOTING FOR OTHERS-FIRST MENTION
R DID CONSIDER VOTING FOR OTHERS-SECOND MENTION
R DID CONSIDER VOTING FOR OTHERS-THIRD MENTION
R DID CONSIDER VOTING FOR OTHERS-FOURTH MENTION
    C3028_1
C3028_2
C3028_3
C3028_4
    Which ones?
ARE THERE OTHERS FOR WHICH R WOULD NEVER VOTE
    C3029
    And were there any [party or parties/candidate or candidates] that you would never vote for?
OTHERS FOR WHICH R WOULD NEVER VOTE-FIRST MENTION
OTHERS FOR WHICH R WOULD NEVER VOTE-SECOND MENTION
OTHERS FOR WHICH R WOULD NEVER VOTE-THIRD MENTION
OTHERS FOR WHICH R WOULD NEVER VOTE-FOURTH MENTION
    C3030_1
C3030_2
C3030_3
C3030_4
    Which ones?
MOST IMPORTANT PROBLEM-EGOCENTRIC-FIRST MENTION
MOST IMPORTANT PROBLEM-EGOCENTRIC-SECOND MENTION
    C3001_1
C3001_2
    What has been the most important issue to you personally in this election?
What has been the second most important issue to you personally in this election?
MOST IMPORTANT ISSUE / MOST IMPORTANT PROBLEM-SOCIOTROPIC-FIRST MENTION
MOST IMPORTANT PROBLEM-SOCIOTROPIC-SECOND MENTION
  B3009 C3002_1
C3002_2
  What do you think has been the most important issue facing [country] over the last [number of years that the last government was in office] years? What do you think is the most important political problem facing [COUNTRY] today?
What do you think is the second most important political problem facing [COUNTRY] today?
GOVERNMENT PERFORMANCE: MOST IMPORTANT ISSUE
  B3010  
  And thinking about that issue, how good or bad a job do you think the government/president in [capital] has done over the past [number of years between the previous and the present election OR change in govt.] years. Has it/he/she done a very good job? A good job? A bad job? A very bad job?  
PARTY/CANDIDATE COMPETENCE-FIRST SOCIOTROPIC PROBLEM
PARTY/CANDIDATE COMPETENCE-SECOND SOCIOTROPIC PROBLEM
    C3003_1
C3003_2
    Thinking of the most important political problem facing [COUNTRY]: which [party/presidential candidate] do you think is best in dealing with it?
And the second most important political problem facing [COUNTRY]: which [party/presidential candidate] do you think is best in dealing with it?
GOVERNMENT PERFORMANCE: GENERAL
  B3011 C3006
  Now thinking about the performance of the government in [capital]/president in general, how good or bad a job do you think the government/president in [capital] has done over the past [number of years between the previous and the present election OR change in govt.] years. Has it/he/she done a very good job? A good job? A bad job? A very bad job? Now thinking about the performance of the [government in [CAPITAL]/president] in general, how good or bad a job do you think the [government/president in [CAPITAL]] has done over the past [NUMBER OF YEARS SINCE LAST GOVERNMENT TOOK OFFICE, BEFORE THE CURRENT ELECTION] years? Has [it/he/she] done a very good job? A good job? A bad job? A very bad job?
SATISFACTION WITH DEMOCRATIC PROCESS / SATISFACTION WITH DEMOCRACY
A3001 B3012 C3019
On the whole, are you very satisfied, fairly satisfied, not very satisfied, or not at all satisfied with the way democracy works in [country]? On the whole, are you very satisfied, fairly satisfied, not very satisfied, or not at all satisfied with the way democracy works in [country]? On the whole, are you very satisfied, fairly satisfied, not very satisfied, or not at all satisfied with the way democracy works in [COUNTRY]?
LAST ELECTION WAS CONDUCTED FAIRLY
A3002    
In some countries, people believe their elections are conducted fairly. In other countries, people believe that their elections are conducted unfairly. Thinking of the last election in [country], where would you place it on this scale of one to five where ONE means that the last election was conducted fairly and FIVE means that the last election was conducted unfairly?    
PREVIOUS ELECTION: DID RESPONDENT CAST A BALLOT
  B3016 C3031
  Whether or not respondent cast a ballot (regardless of whether the ballot was valid) in PRECEDING election This item ascertains whether or not the respondent cast a ballot, regardless of whether or not it was valid in the PREVIOUS election.
PREVIOUS ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - PRESIDENT 1
PREVIOUS ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - PRESIDENT 1
  B3017 C3032_1
C3032_2
  This variable reports the presidential candidate or party affiliation of the presidential candidate for whom the respondent voted. This variable reports the respondent's vote choice for president in the PREVIOUS election.
PREVIOUS ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - LOWER HOUSE 1
PREVIOUS ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - LOWER HOUSE 2
  B3018_1
B3018_2
 
  This variable reports the vote(s) cast by the respondent in LOWER house elections.  
PREVIOUS ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - UPPER HOUSE 1
PREVIOUS ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - UPPER HOUSE 2
PREVIOUS ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - UPPER HOUSE 3
  B3019_1
B3019_2
B3019_3
 
  This variable reports the vote(s) cast by the respondent in UPPER house elections.  
PREVIOUS ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - PARTY LIST 1
PREVIOUS ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - PARTY LIST 2
PREVIOUS ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - PARTY LIST 3
PREVIOUS ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - PARTY LIST 4
    C3033_1
C3033_2
C3033_3
C3033_4
    The Q23b item reports the respondent's vote choice for party list in the PREVIOUS election.
PREVIOUS ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - DISTRICT CANDIDATE 1
PREVIOUS ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - DISTRICT CANDIDATE 2
PREVIOUS ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - DISTRICT CANDIDATE 3
PREVIOUS ELECTION: VOTE CHOICE - DISTRICT CANDIDATE 4
    C3034_1
C3034_2
C3034_3
C3034_4
    The Q23b item reports the respondent's vote choice for district candidate in the PREVIOUS election.
PREVIOUS ELECTION: DID R CAST CANDIDATE PREFERENCE VOTE
  B3020 C3035
  For elections in which the respondent can vote for (or rank) candidates a chosen party list (i.e. where lists are "open" or flexible), this variable reports whether or not the respondent cast a preference vote. This variable reports whether or not the respondent cast a preference vote for a candidate in the PREVIOUS election.
PERFORMANCE OF PARTY R VOTED FOR IN PREVIOUS ELECTION
  B3021  
  How well did the party you voted for then perform over the past (NUMBER OF YEARS between the previous and the current election) years? Has it done a very good job? a good job? a bad job? a very bad job?  
HOW WELL VOTERS' VIEWS ARE REPRESENTED IN ELECTIONS
  B3022  
  Thinking about how elections in [country] work in practice, how well do elections ensure that the views of voters are represented by Majority Parties: very well, quite well, not very well, or not well at all?  
IS THERE A PARTY THAT REPRESENTS R'S VIEWS
  B3023 C3007_1
  Would you say that any of the parties in [country] represents your views reasonably well? Would you say that any of the parties in [COUNTRY] represent your views reasonably well?
PARTY THAT REPRESENTS R'S VIEWS BEST
  B3024 C3007_2
  Which party represents your views best? Which party represents your views best?
IS THERE A LEADER THAT REPRESENTS R'S VIEWS
  B3025 C3008_1
  Regardless of how you feel about the parties, would you say that any of the individual party leaders/presidential candidates at the last election represents your views reasonably well? Regardless of how you feel about the parties, would you say that any of the [individual party leaders/presidential candidates] at the last election represents your views reasonably well?
IS THERE A LEADER THAT REPRESENTS R'S VIEWS
  B3026 C3008_2
  Which party leader/presidential candidate represents your views best? Which [party leader/presidential candidate] represents your views best?
QUESTIONNAIRE USED - LONG OR SHORT
A3003 B3027  
Identifies which version, long or short, of questionnaire was administered. Identifies which version, long or short, of the questionnaire was administered.  
ARE YOU CLOSE TO ANY POLITICAL PARTY
A3004 B3028 C3020_1
Do you usually think of yourself as close to any particular political party? Do you usually think of yourself as close to any particular political party? Do you usually think of yourself as close to any particular party?
PARTY CLOSEST TO - 1ST MENTION
PARTY CLOSEST TO - 2ND MENTION
PARTY CLOSEST TO - 3RD MENTION
A3005_1
A3005_2
A3005_3
B3029_1
B3029_2
B3029_3
 
What party is that? What party is that?  
NUMBER OF PARTIES MENTIONED IN A3005/B3029
A3006 B3030  
Check Point: Number of parties (or blocs) mentioned Check Point: Number of parties (or blocs) mentioned  
WHICH PARTY WITHIN BLOC IS R CLOSEST TO - 1ST MENTION
WHICH PARTY WITHIN BLOC IS R CLOSEST TO - 2ND MENTION
WHICH PARTY WITHIN BLOC IS R CLOSEST TO - 3RD MENTION
A3007_1
A3007_2
A3007_3
B3031_1
B3031_2
B3031_3
 
Which party in [NAME OF BLOC] do you feel closest to? Which party in [NAME OF BLOC] do you feel closest to?  
NUMBER OF PARTIES MENTIONED IN A3007/B3029, B3031
A3008 B3032  
Check Point: Number of parties mentioned Check Point: Number of parties mentioned  
WHICH PARTY DO YOU FEEL CLOSEST TO
A3009 B3033  
Which party do you feel closest to? Which party do you feel closest to?  
DO YOU FEEL CLOSER TO ONE PARTY
A3010 B3034 C3020_2
Do you feel yourself a little closer to one of the political parties than the others? Do you feel yourself a little closer to one of the political parties than the others? Do you feel yourself a little closer to one of the political parties than the others?
WHICH PARTY DO YOU FEEL CLOSER TO / WHICH PARTY DO YOU FEEL CLOSEST TO
A3011 B3035 C3020_3
Which party is that? Which party is that? Which party do you feel closest to?
DEGREE OF CLOSENESS TO THIS PARTY
A3012 B3036 C3020_4
Do you feel very close to this [party/party bloc], somewhat close, or not very close? Do you feel very close to this [party/party bloc], somewhat close, or not very close? Do you feel very close to this party, somewhat close, or not very close?
POLITICAL PARTIES CARE WHAT PEOPLE THINK
A3013    
Some people say that political parties in [country] care what ordinary people think. Others say that political parties in [country] don't care what ordinary people think. Using the scale on this card, (where ONE means that political parties care about what ordinary people think, and FIVE means that they don't care what ordinary people think), where would you place yourself?    
POLITICAL PARTIES ARE NECESSARY
A3014    
Some people say that political parties are necessary to make our political system work in [country]. Others think that political parties are not needed in [country]. Using the scale on this card, (where ONE means that political parties are necessary to make our political system work, and FIVE means that political parties are not needed in [country]), where would you place yourself?    
RECALL CANDIDATES FROM LAST ELECTION
A3015    
Do you happen to remember the name of any candidates who [ran/stood] in your [lower house primary electoral district, e.g., constituency, district, riding] in the last [parliamentary/ congressional] election?    
CANDIDATE MENTIONED 1ST - NAME
CANDIDATE MENTIONED 2ND - NAME
CANDIDATE MENTIONED 3RD - NAME
A3016_1
A3016_2
A3016_3
   
(If name not volunteered) What were their names?    
CANDIDATE MENTIONED 1ST - GENDER
CANDIDATE MENTIONED 2ND - GENDER
CANDIDATE MENTIONED 3RD - GENDER
A3017_1
A3017_2
A3017_3
   
Gender of [first/second/third] candidate mentioned.    
CANDIDATE MENTIONED 1ST - PARTY
CANDIDATE MENTIONED 2ND - PARTY
CANDIDATE MENTIONED 3RD - PARTY
A3018_1
A3018_2
A3018_3
   
Political party of [first/second/third] candidate mentioned.    
NUMBER OF CANDIDATES CORRECTLY NAMED
A3019    
This variable tallies the number of district level candidates the respondents correctly identified in A3016-A3018.    
LIKE-DISLIKE - PARTY A
LIKE-DISLIKE - PARTY B
LIKE-DISLIKE - PARTY C
LIKE-DISLIKE - PARTY D
LIKE-DISLIKE - PARTY E
LIKE-DISLIKE - PARTY F
LIKE-DISLIKE - ADDITIONAL - PARTY G
LIKE-DISLIKE - ADDITIONAL - PARTY H
LIKE-DISLIKE - ADDITIONAL - PARTY I
A3020_A
A3020_B
A3020_C
A3020_D
A3020_E
A3020_F
A3020_G
A3020_H
A3020_I
B3037_A
B3037_B
B3037_C
B3037_D
B3037_E
B3037_F
B3037_G
B3037_H
B3037_I
C3009_A
C3009_B
C3009_C
C3009_D
C3009_E
C3009_F
C3009_G
C3009_H
C3009_I
I'd like to know what you think about each of our political parties. After I read the name of a political party, please rate it on a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 means you strongly dislike that party and 10 means that you strongly like that party. If I come to a party you haven't heard of or you feel you do not know enough about, just say so. The first party is PARTY A. I'd like to know what you think about each of our political parties. After I read the name of a political party, please rate it on a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 means you strongly dislike that party and 10 means that you strongly like that party. If I come to a party you haven't heard of or you feel you do not know enough about, just say so. The first party is PARTY A. Id' like to know what you think about each of our political parties. After I read the name of a political party, please rate it on a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 means you strongly dislike that party and 10 means that you strongly like that party. If I come to a party you haven't heard of or you feel you do not know enough about, just say so. The first party is [PARTY A].
LIKE-DISLIKE - LEADER A
LIKE-DISLIKE - LEADER B
LIKE-DISLIKE - LEADER C
LIKE-DISLIKE - LEADER D
LIKE-DISLIKE - LEADER E
LIKE-DISLIKE - LEADER F
LIKE-DISLIKE - ADDITIONAL - LEADER G
LIKE-DISLIKE - ADDITIONAL - LEADER H
LIKE-DISLIKE - ADDITIONAL - LEADER I
A3021_A
A3021_B
A3021_C
A3021_D
A3021_E
A3021_F
A3021_G
A3021_H
A3021_I
  C3010_A
C3010_B
C3010_C
C3010_D
C3010_E
C3010_F
C3010_G
C3010_H
C3010_I
And now, using the same scale, I'd like to ask you how much you like or dislike some political leaders. Again, if I come to a leader you haven't heard of or you do not know enough about them, just say so. The first political leader is LEADER A.   And what do you think of the presidential candidates/party leaders? After I read the name of a presidential candidate/party leader, please rate them on a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 means you strongly dislike that candidate and 10 means that you strongly like that candidate. If I come to a presidential candidate/party leader you haven't heard of or you feel you do not know enough about, just say so. The first is [LEADER A].
ECONOMY IMPROVED LAST 12 MONTHS
A3022    
What do you think about the state of the economy these days in [country]? Would you say that the state of the economy is very good, good, neither good nor bad, bad, or very bad?    
ECONOMY CHANGE
A3023    
Would you say that over the past twelve months, the state of the economy in [country] has gotten better, stayed about the same, or gotten worse?    
ECONOMY HOW MUCH BETTER
A3024    
Would you say much better or somewhat better?    
ECONOMY HOW MUCH WORSE
A3025    
Would you say much worse or somewhat worse?    
POLITICIANS KNOW WHAT PEOPLE THINK
A3026    
Some people say that members of [Congress/Parliament] know what ordinary people think. Others say that members of [Congress/Parliament] don't know much about what ordinary people think. Using the scale on this card, (where ONE means that the members of [Congress/Parliament] know what ordinary people think, and FIVE means that the members of [Congress/Parliament] don't know much about what ordinary people think), where would you place yourself?    
POLITICAL PARTICIPATION: CONTACT POLITICIAN OR OFFICIAL
A3027 B3042_1  
During the past twelve months, have you had any contact with [a member of Parliament/a member of Congress] in any way? Over the past five years or so, have you done any of the following things to express your views about something the government should or should not be doing? (Have you) contacted a politician or government official either in person, or in writing, or some other way?  
POLITICAL PARTICIPATION: PROTEST OR DEMONSTRATION
  B3042_2  
  (Have you) taken part in a protest, march or demonstration?  
POLITICAL PARTICIPATION: WORK WITH OTHERS WHO SHARE CONCERNS
  B3042_3  
  (Have you) worked together with people who shared the same concern?  
RESPECT FOR INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM AND HUMAN RIGHTS
  B3043  
  How much respect is there for individual freedom and human rights nowadays in (country)? Do you feel there is a lot of respect for individual freedom, some respect, not much respect, or no respect at all?  
HOW WIDESPREAD IS CORRUPTION
  B3044  
  How widespread do you think corruption such as bribe taking is amongst politicians in [country]: very widespread, quite widespread, not very widespread, it hardly happens at all?  
WHO IS IN POWER CAN MAKE DIFFERENCE
A3028 B3013 C3004
Some people say it makes a difference who is in power. Others say that it doesn't make a difference who is in power. Using the scale on this card, (where ONE means that it makes a difference who is in power and FIVE means that it doesn't make a difference who is in power), where would you place yourself? Some people say it makes a difference who is in power. Others say that it doesn't make a difference who is in power. Using the scale on this card, (where ONE means that it makes a difference who is in power and FIVE means that it doesn't make a difference who is in power), where would you place yourself? Some people say that it doesn't make any difference who is in power. Others say that it makes a big difference who is in power. Using the scale on this card, (where ONE means that it doesn't make any difference who is in power and FIVE means that it makes a big difference who is in power), where would you place yourself?
WHO PEOPLE VOTE FOR MAKES A DIFFERENCE
A3029 B3014 C3005
Some people say that no matter who people vote for, it won't make any difference to what happens. Others say that who people vote for can make a difference to what happens. Using the scale on this card, (where ONE means that voting won't make a difference to what happens and FIVE means that voting can make a difference), where would you place yourself? Some people say that no matter who people vote for, it won't make any difference to what happens. Others say that who people vote for can make a difference to what happens. Using the scale on this card, (where ONE means that voting won't make a difference to what happens and FIVE means that voting can make a difference), where would you place yourself? Some people say that no matter who people vote for, it won't make any difference to what happens. Others say that who people vote for can make a big difference to what happens. Using the scale on this card, (where ONE means that voting won't make any difference to what happens and FIVE means that voting can make a big difference), where would you place yourself?
DO PEOPLE EXPRESS POLITICAL OPINION
A3030    
When people are asked to express an opinion, do you believe most people in [country] usually say what they think about politics or do you believe most people usually hide what they really think about politics? Using the scale on this card, (where ONE means that most people in [country] usually say what they think about politics, and FIVE means that most people usually hide what they really think), where would you place yourself?    
DEMOCRACY BETTER THAN ANY OTHER FORM OF GOVERNMENT
  B3015  
  Please tell me how strongly you agree or disagree with the following statement: "Democracy may have problems but it's better than any other form of government." (Do you agree strongly, agree, disagree, or disagree strongly with this statement?)  
LEFT-RIGHT - SELF
A3031 B3045 C3013
In politics people sometimes talk of left and right. Where would you place yourself on a scale from 0 to 10 where 0 means the left and 10 means the right? In politics people sometimes talk of left and right. Where would you place yourself on a scale from 0 to 10 where 0 means the left and 10 means the right? Where would you place yourself on this scale?
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY A
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY B
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY C
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY D
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY E
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY F
LEFT-RIGHT - ADDITIONAL - PARTY G
LEFT-RIGHT - ADDITIONAL - PARTY H
LEFT-RIGHT - ADDITIONAL - PARTY I
A3032_A
A3032_B
A3032_C
A3032_D
A3032_E
A3032_F
A3032_G
A3032_H
A3032_I
B3038_A
B3038_B
B3038_C
B3038_D
B3038_E
B3038_F
B3038_G
B3038_H
B3038_I
C3011_A
C3011_B
C3011_C
C3011_D
C3011_E
C3011_F
C3011_G
C3011_H
C3011_I
Now, using the same scale, where would you place [PARTY A-F]? In politics people sometimes talk of left and right. Where would you place Party A on a scale from 0 to 10 where 0 means the left and 10 means the right? Using the same scale, where would you place, [PARTY B-F]? In politics people sometimes talk of left and right. Where would you place [PARTY A] on a scale from 0 to 10 where 0 means the left and 10 means the right? Using the same scale, where would you place [PARTY B]?
LEFT-RIGHT - LEADER A
LEFT-RIGHT - LEADER B
LEFT-RIGHT - LEADER C
LEFT-RIGHT - LEADER D
LEFT-RIGHT - LEADER E
LEFT-RIGHT - LEADER F
LEFT-RIGHT - ADDITIONAL - LEADER G
LEFT-RIGHT - ADDITIONAL - LEADER H
LEFT-RIGHT - ADDITIONAL - LEADER I
  B3039_A
B3039_B
B3039_C
B3039_D
B3039_E
B3039_F
B3039_G
B3039_H
B3039_I
C3012_A
C3012_B
C3012_C
C3012_D
C3012_E
C3012_F
C3012_G
C3012_H
C3012_I
  In politics people sometimes talk of left and right. Where would you place LEADER A on a scale from 0 to 10 where 0 means the left and 10 means the right? Using the same scale, where would you place, [LEADER B-F]? And again, using the same scale where would you place [LEADER A]? Where would you place [LEADER B]?
OPTIONAL SCALE - SELF
A3033 B3046 C3016
Where would you place yourself on this scale? Where would you place yourself on this scale? Where would you place yourself on this scale?
OPTIONAL SCALE - PARTY A
OPTIONAL SCALE - PARTY B
OPTIONAL SCALE - PARTY C
OPTIONAL SCALE - PARTY D
OPTIONAL SCALE - PARTY E
OPTIONAL SCALE - PARTY F
OPTIONAL SCALE - ADDITIONAL - PARTY G
OPTIONAL SCALE - ADDITIONAL - PARTY H
OPTIONAL SCALE - ADDITIONAL - PARTY I
A3034_A
A3034_B
A3034_C
A3034_D
A3034_E
A3034_F
B3040_A
B3040_B
B3040_C
B3040_D
B3040_E
B3040_F
B3040_G
B3040_H
B3040_I
C3014_A
C3014_B
C3014_C
C3014_D
C3014_E
C3014_F
C3014_G
C3014_H
C3014_I
Where would you place [PARTY A-F] on this scale? Where would you place [PARTY A-F] on this scale? In politics people sometimes talk of [SCALE VALUE AT POINT 0] and [SCALE VALUE AT POINT 10]. Where would you place [PARTY A] on a scale from 0 to 10 where 0 means [SCALE VALUE AT POINT 0] and 10 means [SCALE VALUE AT POINT 10]?
OPTIONAL SCALE - LEADER A
OPTIONAL SCALE - LEADER B
OPTIONAL SCALE - LEADER C
OPTIONAL SCALE - LEADER D
OPTIONAL SCALE - LEADER E
OPTIONAL SCALE - LEADER F
OPTIONAL SCALE - ADDITIONAL - LEADER G
OPTIONAL SCALE - ADDITIONAL - LEADER H
OPTIONAL SCALE - ADDITIONAL - LEADER I
A3035_A
A3035_B
A3035_C
A3035_D
A3035_E
A3035_F
B3041_A
B3041_B
B3041_C
B3041_D
B3041_E
B3041_F
B3041_G
B3041_H
B3041_I
C3015_A
C3015_B
C3015_C
C3015_D
C3015_E
C3015_F
C3015_G
C3015_H
C3015_I
Where would you place [LEADER A-F] on this scale? Where would you place [LEADER A-F] on this scale? And again, using the same scale where would you place [LEADER A]?
DIFFERENCES OF CHOICE OPTIONS
    C3017
    During the election campaign, would you say that there were major differences between the [parties/candidates], minor differences, or no differences at all?
CAMPAIGN INVOLVEMENT
    C3018
    How closely did you follow the election campaign? Very closely, fairly closely, not very closely, or not closely at all?
POLITICAL INFORMATION ITEM - 1ST
POLITICAL INFORMATION ITEM - 2ND
POLITICAL INFORMATION ITEM - 3RD
A2023
A2024
A2025
B3047_1
B3047_2
B3047_3
B3036_1
B3036_2
B3036_3
Political information items. Political information items. Political information items.

District-Level Variables

NUMBER OF SEATS IN DISTRICT
A4001 B4001 C4001
This variable reports the number of seats contested in each district of the first segment of the lower house of the legislature. This variable reports the number of seats contested in each district of the first segment of the lower house of the legislature. This variable reports the number of seats contested in each district of the first segment of the lower house of the legislature.
NUMBER OF CANDIDATES IN DISTRICT
A4002 B4002 C4002
This variable reports the number of candidates who contested seats in each district. These data are reported for systems in which electors vote for candidates directly, and for systems in which electors may cast a preference ballot (i.e. indicate a candidate from a party list, in addition to casting a ballot for a party list). This variable reports the number of candidates who contested seats in each district. These data are reported for systems in which electors vote for candidates directly, and for systems in which electors may cast a preference ballot (i.e. indicate a candidate from a party list, in addition to casting a ballot for a party list). This variable reports the number of candidates who contested seats in each district. These data are reported for systems in which electors vote for candidates directly as well as for systems in which electors may cast a preference ballot (i.e., where a voter can indicate a candidate from a party list, in addition to casting a ballot for a party list).
NUMBER OF PARTY LISTS IN DISTRICT
A4003 B4003 C4003
This variable reports the number of parties that presented lists and thereby contested seats in the district. These data are reported for those systems in which electors cast ballots for party lists. This variable reports the number of parties that presented lists and thereby contested seats in the district. These data are reported for those systems in which electors cast ballots for party lists. This variable reports the number of parties that presented lists and, thereby, contested seats in the district. These data are reported for those systems in which electors cast ballots for party lists.
PERCENT VOTE IN DISTRICT - PARTY A
PERCENT VOTE IN DISTRICT - PARTY B
PERCENT VOTE IN DISTRICT - PARTY C
PERCENT VOTE IN DISTRICT - PARTY D
PERCENT VOTE IN DISTRICT - PARTY E
PERCENT VOTE IN DISTRICT - PARTY F
PERCENT VOTE IN DISTRICT - OPTIONAL PARTY G
PERCENT VOTE IN DISTRICT - OPTIONAL PARTY H
PERCENT VOTE IN DISTRICT - OPTIONAL PARTY I
A4004_A
A4004_B
A4004_C
A4004_D
A4004_E
A4004_F
B4004_A
B4004_B
B4004_C
B4004_D
B4004_E
B4004_F
C4004_A
C4004_B
C4004_C
C4004_D
C4004_E
C4004_F
C4004_G
C4004_H
C4004_I
This variable reports the proportion of votes cast in favor of [PARTY A-F] in this district. In majoritarian systems, in which more than one round of elections are held, this variable reports the proportion of the popular vote cast in favor of [PARTY A-F] in the FIRST round. This variable reports the proportion of votes cast in favor of [PARTY A-F] in this district. In majoritarian systems, in which more than one round of elections are held, this variable reports the proportion of the popular vote cast in favor of [PARTY A-F] in the FIRST round. This variable reports the proportion of votes cast in favor of party [A/B/C/D/E/F] in this district. In majoritarian systems, in which more than one round of elections are held, this variable reports the proportion of the popular vote cast in favor of party [A/B/C/D/E/F] in the FIRST round.
TURNOUT IN DISTRICT
A4005 B4005 C4005
This variable reports the proportion of valid votes cast relative to the number of voters. This variable reports the proportion of valid votes cast relative to the number of voters. This variable reports official voter turnout in each district.

Macro-Level Variables

NUMBER OF PARTIES PARTICIPATING IN ELECTION
    C5015
    How many political parties received votes in the election?
EFFECTIVE NUMBER OF ELECTORAL PARTIES
    C5093
    Effective number of electoral parties (ENEP).
CORRECTED EFFECTIVE NUMBER OF ELECTORAL PARTIES
    C5094
    Corrected effective number of electoral parties (CENEP).
EFFECTIVE NUMBER OF PARLIAMENTARY PARTIES
    C5095
    Effective number of parliamentary parties (ENPP).
CORRECTED EFFECTIVE NUMBER OF PARLIAMENTARY PARTIES
    C5096
    Effective number of parliamentary parties (CENPP).
YEAR FOUNDED - PARTY A
YEAR FOUNDED - PARTY B
YEAR FOUNDED - PARTY C
YEAR FOUNDED - PARTY D
YEAR FOUNDED - PARTY E
YEAR FOUNDED - PARTY F
YEAR FOUNDED - PARTY G
YEAR FOUNDED - PARTY H
YEAR FOUNDED - PARTY I
A5001_A
A5001_B
A5001_C
A5001_D
A5001_E
A5001_F
A5001_G
A5001_H
A5001_I
B5011_A
B5011_B
B5011_C
B5011_D
B5011_E
B5011_F
B5011_G
B5011_H
B5011_I
 
Year party founded Year party founded  
IDEOLOGICAL FAMILY - PARTY A
IDEOLOGICAL FAMILY - PARTY B
IDEOLOGICAL FAMILY - PARTY C
IDEOLOGICAL FAMILY - PARTY D
IDEOLOGICAL FAMILY - PARTY E
IDEOLOGICAL FAMILY - PARTY F
IDEOLOGICAL FAMILY - PARTY G
IDEOLOGICAL FAMILY - PARTY H
IDEOLOGICAL FAMILY - PARTY I
A5002_A
A5002_B
A5002_C
A5002_D
A5002_E
A5002_F
B5012_A
B5012_B
B5012_C
B5012_D
B5012_E
B5012_F
B5012_G
B5012_H
B5012_I
C5016_A
C5016_B
C5016_C
C5016_D
C5016_E
C5016_F
C5016_G
C5016_H
C5016_I
Ideological Family Party is Closest to Ideological Family Party is Closest to Ideological Family Party is Closest to
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT POLITICAL GROUP - PARTY A
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT POLITICAL GROUP - PARTY B
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT POLITICAL GROUP - PARTY C
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT POLITICAL GROUP - PARTY D
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT POLITICAL GROUP - PARTY E
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT POLITICAL GROUP - PARTY F
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT POLITICAL GROUP - PARTY G
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT POLITICAL GROUP - PARTY H
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT POLITICAL GROUP - PARTY I
  B5013_A
B5013_B
B5013_C
B5013_D
B5013_E
B5013_F
B5013_G
B5013_H
B5013_I
 
  European Parliament Party Political Group party belongs to:  
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION - PARTY A
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION - PARTY B
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION - PARTY C
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION - PARTY D
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION - PARTY E
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION - PARTY F
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION - PARTY G
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION - PARTY H
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION - PARTY I
A5003_A
A5003_B
A5003_C
A5003_D
A5003_E
A5003_F
B5014_A
B5014_B
B5014_C
B5014_D
B5014_E
B5014_F
B5014_Gbr> B5014_H
B5014_I
 
International Organization Party Belongs to International Organization Party Belongs to  
SIGNIFICANT PARTIES NOT REPRESENTED IN PARLIAMENT BEFORE THE ELECTION
  B5015  
  Significant parties not represented in parliament before the election (in the expert judgment of the CSES Collaborator).  
SIGNIFICANT PARTIES NOT REPRESENTED IN PARLIAMENT AFTER THE ELECTION
  B5016  
  Significant parties not represented in parliament after the election (in the expert judgment of the CSES Collaborator).  
OTHER NON-REPRESENTED SIGNIFICANT PARTIES/INDEPENDENT ACTORS
  B5017  
  Other non-represented parties or independent actors who had a significant effect on the election (in the expert judgment of the CSES Collaborator).  
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY A
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY B
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY C
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY D
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY E
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY F
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY G
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY H
LEFT-RIGHT - PARTY I
A5004_A
A5004_B
A5004_C
A5004_D
A5004_E
A5004_F
B5018_A
B5018_B
B5018_C
B5018_D
B5018_E
B5018_F
B5018_G
B5018_H
B5018_I
C5017_A
C5017_B
C5017_C
C5017_D
C5017_E
C5017_F
C5017_G
C5017_H
C5017_I
Parties' position in left-right scale (in the expert judgment of the CSES Collaborator) Parties' position in left-right scale (in the expert judgment of the CSES Collaborator) Parties' positions on the left-right scale (in the expert judgment of the CSES Collaborator)
CONSENSUS ON THE LEFT-RIGHT PLACEMENTS
  B5019  
  Would there be a general consensus on left-right placements among informed observers in the country (in the expert judgment of the CSES Collaborator).  
ALTERNATIVE DIMENSION
  B5020 C5018
  Were respondents asked to rank political parties on an alternative dimension, other than the left-right dimension? Were respondents asked to rank political parties on an alternative dimension, other than the left-right dimension?
ALTERNATIVE DIMENSION - PARTY A
ALTERNATIVE DIMENSION - PARTY B
ALTERNATIVE DIMENSION - PARTY C
ALTERNATIVE DIMENSION - PARTY D
ALTERNATIVE DIMENSION - PARTY E
ALTERNATIVE DIMENSION - PARTY F
ALTERNATIVE DIMENSION - PARTY G
ALTERNATIVE DIMENSION - PARTY H
ALTERNATIVE DIMENSION - PARTY I
  B5020_A
B5020_B
B5020_C
B5020_D
B5020_E
B5020_F
B5020_G
B5020_H
B5020_I
C5018_A
C5018_B
C5018_C
C5018_D
C5018_E
C5018_F
C5018_G
C5018_H
C5018_I
  Parties' positions on the alternative scale (in the expert judgment of the CSES Collaborator) Parties' positions on the alternative scale (in the expert judgment of the CSES Collaborator)
CONSENSUS ON THE ALTERNATIVE DIMENSION PLACEMENTS
  B5021  
  Would there be a general consensus on that alternative dimension placements among informed observers in the country (in the expert judgment of the CSES Collaborator).  
PERCENT VOTE - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY A
PERCENT VOTE - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY B
PERCENT VOTE - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY C
PERCENT VOTE - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY D
PERCENT VOTE - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY E
PERCENT VOTE - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY F
PERCENT VOTE - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY G
PERCENT VOTE - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY H
PERCENT VOTE - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY I
A5005_A
A5005_B
A5005_C
A5005_D
A5005_E
A5005_F
B5001_A
B5001_B
B5001_C
B5001_D
B5001_E
B5001_F
B5001_G
B5001_H
B5001_I
C5001_A
C5001_B
C5001_C
C5001_D
C5001_E
C5001_F
C5001_G
C5001_H
C5001_I
Percent of popular vote received by [PARTY A-F] in current (lower house) legislative election Percent of popular vote received by [PARTY A-I] in current (lower house) legislative election Percent of popular vote received by [PARTY A-I] in current (lower house) legislative election
PERCENT SEATS - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY A
PERCENT SEATS - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY B
PERCENT SEATS - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY C
PERCENT SEATS - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY D
PERCENT SEATS - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY E
PERCENT SEATS - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY F
PERCENT SEATS - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY G
PERCENT SEATS - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY H
PERCENT SEATS - LOWER HOUSE - PARTY I
A5006_A
A5006_B
A5006_C
A5006_D
A5006_E
A5006_F
B5002_A
B5002_B
B5002_C
B5002_D
B5002_E
B5002_F
B5002_G
B5002_H
B5002_I
C5002_A
C5002_B
C5002_C
C5002_D
C5002_E
C5002_F
C5002_G
C5002_H
C5002_I
Percent of seats in lower house received by [PARTY A-F] in current (lower house) election Percent of seats in lower house received by [PARTY A-I] in current (lower house) election Percent of seats in lower house received by [PARTY A-I] in current (lower house) election
PERCENT VOTE - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY A
PERCENT VOTE - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY B
PERCENT VOTE - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY C
PERCENT VOTE - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY D
PERCENT VOTE - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY E
PERCENT VOTE - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY F
PERCENT VOTE - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY G
PERCENT VOTE - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY H
PERCENT VOTE - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY I
A5007_A
A5007_B
A5007_C
A5007_D
A5007_E
A5007_F
B5003_A
B5003_B
B5003_C
B5003_D
B5003_E
B5003_F
B5003_G
B5003_H
B5003_I
C5003_A
C5003_B
C5003_C
C5003_D
C5003_E
C5003_F
C5003_G
C5003_H
C5003_I
Percent of popular vote received by [PARTY A-F] in current (upper house) legislative election Percent of popular vote received by [PARTY A-I] in current (upper house) legislative election Percent of popular vote received by [PARTY A-I] in current (upper house) legislative election
PERCENT SEATS - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY A
PERCENT SEATS - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY B
PERCENT SEATS - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY C
PERCENT SEATS - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY D
PERCENT SEATS - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY E
PERCENT SEATS - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY F
PERCENT SEATS - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY G
PERCENT SEATS - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY H
PERCENT SEATS - UPPER HOUSE - PARTY I
A5008_A
A5008_B
A5008_C
A5008_D
A5008_E
A5008_F
B5004_A
B5004_B
B5004_C
B5004_D
B5004_E
B5004_F
B5004_G
B5004_H
B5004_I
C5004_A
C5004_B
C5004_C
C5004_D
C5004_E
C5004_F
C5004_G
C5004_H
C5004_I
Percent of seats in upper house received by [PARTY A-F] in current (upper house) election Percent of seats in upper house received by [PARTY A-I] in current (upper house) election Percent of seats in upper house received by [PARTY A-I] in current (upper house) election
PERCENT VOTE - PRESIDENT - PARTY A
PERCENT VOTE - PRESIDENT - PARTY B
PERCENT VOTE - PRESIDENT - PARTY C
PERCENT VOTE - PRESIDENT - PARTY D
PERCENT VOTE - PRESIDENT - PARTY E
PERCENT VOTE - PRESIDENT - PARTY F
PERCENT VOTE - PRESIDENT - PARTY G
PERCENT VOTE - PRESIDENT - PARTY H
PERCENT VOTE - PRESIDENT - PARTY I
A5009_A
A5009_B
A5009_C
A5009_D
A5009_E
A5009_F
B5005_A
B5005_B
B5005_C
B5005_D
B5005_E
B5005_F
B5005_G
B5005_H
B5005_I
C5005_A
C5005_B
C5005_C
C5005_D
C5005_E
C5005_F
C5005_G
C5005_H
C5005_I
If multiple rounds, percent of vote received in first round. If multiple rounds, percent of vote received in first round. If multiple rounds, percent of vote received in first round.
ELECTORAL TURNOUT
ELECTORAL TURNOUT - VERSION 2
A5010
 
B5006M
 
C5006_1
C5006_2
Percentage of Voting Age Population who cast ballots
 
Percentage of Voting Age Population who cast ballots
 
Official voter turnout - Percentage of registered voters.
Official voter turnout - Percentage of voting age population.
PARTY OF THE PRESIDENT BEFORE
    C5007
    Party of the president before the election.
PARTY OF THE PRIME MINISTER BEFORE
    C5008
    Party of the Prime Minister before the election.
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) BEFORE - PARTY A
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) BEFORE - PARTY B
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) BEFORE - PARTY C
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) BEFORE - PARTY D
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) BEFORE - PARTY E
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) BEFORE - PARTY F
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) BEFORE - PARTY G
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) BEFORE - PARTY H
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) BEFORE - PARTY I
  B5007_A
B5007_B
B5007_C
B5007_D
B5007_E
B5007_F
B5007_G
B5007_H
B5007_I
C5009_A
C5009_B
C5009_C
C5009_D
C5009_E
C5009_F
C5009_G
C5009_H
C5009_I
  Number of portfolios (cabinet posts) held by [PARTY A-I] before the election. Number of cabinet posts (portfolios) held by [PARTY A-I] before the election.
SIZE OF THE CABINET BEFORE
  B5008 C5010
  The size of the cabinet before the election. The size of the cabinet before the election.
PARTY OF THE PRESIDENT AFTER
    C5011
    Party of the president after the election.
PARTY OF THE PRIME MINISTER AFTER
    C5012
    Party of the Prime Minister after the election.
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) AFTER - PARTY A
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) AFTER - PARTY B
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) AFTER - PARTY C
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) AFTER - PARTY D
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) AFTER - PARTY E
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) AFTER - PARTY F
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) AFTER - PARTY G
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) AFTER - PARTY H
NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS (GOVERNMENT COMPOSITION) AFTER - PARTY I
  B5009_A
B5009_B
B5009_C
B5009_D
B5009_E
B5009_F
B5009_G
B5009_H
B5009_I
C5013_A
C5013_B
C5013_C
C5013_D
C5013_E
C5013_F
C5013_G
C5013_H
C5013_I
  Number of portfolios (cabinet posts) held by [PARTY A-I] after the election. Number of cabinet posts (portfolios) held by [PARTY A-I] after the election.
SIZE OF THE CABINET AFTER
  B5010 C5014
  The size of the cabinet after the election. The size of the cabinet after the election.
ELECTORAL ALLIANCES PERMITTED IN ELECTION
A5011 B5024 C5030
Were electoral alliances permitted during the election campaign? Were electoral alliances permitted during the election campaign? There are multiple types of electoral alliances/coalitions, but we are explicitly interested in those involving joint lists or candidates - i.e. those where parties compete as a unit during the election. Is this type of electoral coalition legally allowable?
ELECTORAL ALLIANCES IN PRACTICE
    C5031
    Is this type of electoral coalition used in practice, even if not legally allowable?
DID ANY ELECTORAL ALLIANCES FORM?
A5012 B5025 C5032
Did any electoral alliances form? Did any electoral alliances form? Did any electoral alliances form?
MOST SALIENT FACTORS IN ELECTION - 1ST
MOST SALIENT FACTORS IN ELECTION - 2ND
MOST SALIENT FACTORS IN ELECTION - 3RD
MOST SALIENT FACTORS IN ELECTION - 4TH
MOST SALIENT FACTORS IN ELECTION - 5TH
A5013_1
A5013_2
A5013_3
A5013_4
A5013_5
B5022_1
B5022_2
B5022_3
B5022_4
B5022_5
C5019_1
C5019_2
C5019_3
C5019_4
C5019_5
In your view, what are the five most salient factors that affected the outcome of the election (e.g. major scandals; economic events; the presence of an independent actor; specific issues)? In your view, what are the five most salient factors that affected the outcome of the election (e.g. major scandals; economic events; the presence of an independent actor; specific issues)? In your view, what are the five most salient factors that affected the outcome of the election (e.g., major scandals; economic events; the presence of an independent actor; specific issues)?
CONSENSUS ON THE SALIENCE RANKING
  B5023  
  Do you believe there would be general consensus about the importance of these factors among informed observers in the country?  
FAIRNESS OF THE ELECTION
    C5020
    How impartial was the body that administered the election law?
FORMAL COMPLAINTS AGAINST NATIONAL LEVEL RESULTS
    C5021
    Was there a formal complaint against the national level results?
ELECTION IRREGULARITIES
    C5022
    Were there irregularities reported by international election observers?
DATE ELECTION SCHEDULED - MONTH
DATE ELECTION SCHEDULED - DAY
DATE ELECTION SCHEDULED - YEAR
    C5023_1
C5023_2
C5023_3
    On what date was the election originally scheduled to be held?
DATE ELECTION HELD - MONTH
DATE ELECTION HELD - DAY
DATE ELECTION HELD - YEAR
    C5024_1
C5024_2
C5024_3
    On what date was the election actually held?
ELECTION IRREGULARITIES
    C5025
    If the election was held on a different date than scheduled, please explain why?
ELECTION VIOLENCE
    C5026
    To what extent was there violence and voter or candidate intimidation during the election campaign and the election day?
GEOGRAPHIC CONCENTRATION OF VIOLENCE
    C5027
    If there was violence, was it geographically concentrated or national?
POST-ELECTION VIOLENCE
    C5028
    To what extent was there violence following the election?
POST-ELECTION PROTEST
    C5029
    To what extent was there protest following the election?
HEAD OF STATE
A5014 B5052  
Who is the head of state? Who is the head of state?  
HEAD OF STATE - SELECTION
A5015 B5053  
How is the head of state selected? How is the head of state selected?  
HEAD OF STATE - PROCESS IF DIRECT ELECTION
A5016 B5054  
If by direct election, by what process? If by direct election, by what process?  
HEAD OF STATE - 1ST ROUND VICTORY
A5017 B5055  
If by run-off system, what is the threshold for first-round victory? If by run-off system, what is the threshold for first-round victory?  
HEAD OF STATE - ADVANCE TO 2ND ROUND
A5018 B5056  
If by run-off system, what is the threshold to advance to second round? If by run-off system, what is the threshold to advance to second round?  
HEAD OF STATE - 2ND ROUND VICTORY
A5019 B5057  
If by run-off system, what is the threshold for victory in the second round? If by run-off system, what is the threshold for victory in the second round?  
YEAR OF PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION - 1ST
YEAR OF PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION - 2ND
A5020_1
A5020_2
B5058_1
B5058_2
 
If the presidential election was not held concurrently with the legislative election, the year of the presidential election prior to this legislative election is: If the presidential election was not held concurrently with the legislative election, the year of the presidential election prior to this [after this] legislative election is:  
PROCESS IF INDIRECT ELECTION
A5021 B5059  
If by indirect election, by what process? If by indirect election, by what process?  
ELECTORAL COLLEGE - SELECTION OF ELECTORS
  B5060  
  If by electoral college, how are electors chosen?  
ELECTORAL COLLEGE - DELIBERATES
  B5061  
  Does the electoral college deliberate?  
ELECTORAL COLLEGE - VOTING PROCEDURE
  B5062  
  What is the voting procedure used by the electoral college?  
IF BY LEGISLATURE - WHAT CHAMBER(S)
  B5063  
  If by the legislature, by which chamber(s) of the legislature?  
IF BY LEGISLATURE - VOTING PROCEDURE
  B5064  
  If by the legislature, what is the voting procedure used?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT
A5022 B5080  
Who is the Head of Government? Who is the Head of Government?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - ELECTED INDEPENDENTLY
  B5081  
  Is the Head of Government elected independently of the legislature?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - IS THE HEAD OF STATE
  B5082  
  Is the Head of Government also the Head of State?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - SELECTION METHOD (IF INDEP. OF LEGISLATURE)
A5023 B5083  
If the Head of Government is a prime minister, how is the prime minister selected? If the Head of Government is not elected independently of the legislature, how is the Head of Government selected?  
NUMBER OF ELECTED LEGISLATIVE CHAMBERS
A5024 B5030 C5091
Number of elected legislative chambers: Number of elected legislative chambers: Number of elected legislative chambers:
ELECTORAL SEGMENTS - LOWER HOUSE
ELECTORAL SEGMENTS - UPPER HOUSE
A5025_1
A5025_2
B5031_1
B5031_2
 
In some electoral systems, there are electoral districts that are geographically nested but not otherwise related for purposes of seat allocation. In Lithuania, for example, there are 71 single-member districts that operate under a majority runoff system, and also a single nation-wide district that operates under proportional representation (the largest remainders method with the Hare quota). Neither votes nor seats from the single-member districts transfer to the nationwide district, however. The two processes are entirely independent (with voters having one vote in each district). In this case, the nationwide district, although it contains the 71 single-member districts, is not considered to be secondary. It is primary. One might say that there are two segments to the electoral system in such cases. How many segments (as just defined) are there in the electoral system? In some electoral systems, there are electoral districts that are geographically nested but not otherwise related for purposes of seat allocation. In Lithuania, for example, there are 71 single-member districts that operate under a majority runoff system, and also a single nation-wide district that operates under proportional representation (the largest remainders method with the Hare quota). Neither votes nor seats from the single-member districts transfer to the nationwide district, however. The two processes are entirely independent (with voters having one vote in each district). In this case, the nationwide district, although it contains the 71 single-member districts, is not considered to be secondary. It is primary. One might say that there are two segments to the electoral system in such cases. How many segments (as just defined) are there in the electoral system?  
NUMBER OF ELECTORAL SEGMENTS (TIERS)
    C5059
    This variable indicates the number of electoral segments (tiers) in each country.
LINKED ELECTORAL SEGMENTS (TIERS)
    C5060
    This variable indicates whether countries with multiple segments (tiers) have linked (connected) or unlinked (unconnected) segments (tiers). Linkage occurs whenever (i) unused votes from one electoral segment (tier) are used at another level or (ii) the allocation of seats in one segment (tier) is conditional on the seats received in another segment (tier).
DEPENDENT FORMULAE IN MIXED SYSTEMS
    C5061
    This indicates whether the two electoral formulas used in a mixed system are dependent or independent. A dependent mixed system is one in which the application of one formula is dependent on the outcome produced by the other formula. An independent mixed system is one in which the two electoral formulas are implemented independently of each other.
SUBTYPES OF MIXED ELECTORAL SYSTEMS
    C5062
    Sub-types of mixed electoral systems.
PRIMARY DISTRICTS - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT
PRIMARY DISTRICTS - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT
PRIMARY DISTRICTS - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT
PRIMARY DISTRICTS - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT
A5026_1
A5026_2
A5026_3
A5026_4
B5032_1
B5032_2
B5033_3
B5034_4
 
How many primary electoral districts are there? How many primary electoral districts are there?  
NUMBER OF ELECTORAL DISTRICTS - LOWEST TIER - LOWER HOUSE
NUMBER OF ELECTORAL DISTRICTS - SECOND TIER - LOWER HOUSE
NUMBER OF ELECTORAL DISTRICTS - THIRD TIER - LOWER HOUSE
    C5063
C5066
C5069
    Number of electoral districts or constituencies in the [first or lowest/second/third] electoral segment (tier) for the lower house of the legislature.
NUMBER OF SEATS - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT
NUMBER OF SEATS - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT
NUMBER OF SEATS - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT
NUMBER OF SEATS - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT
A5027_1
A5027_2
A5027_3
A5027_4
B5033_1
B5033_2
B5033_3
B5033_4
 
Total number of seats elected in the [first/second] segment of the [lower/upper] house: Total number of seats elected in the [first/second] segment of the [lower/upper] house:  
NUMBER OF SEATS ABOVE THE FIRST SEGMENT (TIER) - LOWER HOUSE
    C5072
    The number of seats allocated in electoral districts or constituencies above the first or lowest segment (tier). This variable may include seats allocated in several different upper segments (tiers).
PERCENTAGE OF SEATS ABOVE THE FIRST SEGMENT (TIER) - LOWER HOUSE
    C5073
    Percentage of seats allocated in electoral districts above the lowest segment (tier).
FUSED VOTE
    C5074
    This indicates whether a fused vote was used for presidential and legislative elections. A fused vote is when a citizen casts a single ballot for the elections of more than one political office. This particular variable captures when the single ballot is for the presidency and the legislature. Citizens are unable to divide their votes among the candidates or lists of different parties. Split-ticket voting is expressly prohibited.
SIZE OF THE LOWER HOUSE
    C5074
    Total number of seats in the lower house of the legislature during the election year.
DISTRICT MAGNITUDE - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT
DISTRICT MAGNITUDE - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT
DISTRICT MAGNITUDE - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT
DISTRICT MAGNITUDE - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT
A5028_1
A5028_2
A5028_3
A5028_4
B5034_1
B5034_2
B5034_3
B5034_4
 
For each primary electoral district, how many members are elected from that district? For each primary electoral district, how many members are elected from that district?  
AVERAGE DISTRICT MAGNITUDE - LOWEST TIER - LOWER HOUSE
AVERAGE DISTRICT MAGNITUDE - SECOND TIER - LOWER HOUSE
AVERAGE DISTRICT MAGNITUDE - THIRD TIER - LOWER HOUSE
    C5064
C5067
C5070
    Average district magnitude in the [first or lowest/second/third] electoral segment (tier). This is calculated as the total number of seats allocated in the [lowest/second/third] segment (tier) divided by the total number of districts in that segment (tier).
SECONDARY DISTRICTS - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT
SECONDARY DISTRICTS - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT
SECONDARY DISTRICTS - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT
SECONDARY DISTRICTS - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT
A5029_1
A5029_2
A5029_3
A5029_4
B5035_1
B5035_2
B5035_3
B5035_4
 
How many secondary electoral districts are there? How many secondary electoral districts are there?  
TERTIARY DISTRICTS - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT
TERTIARY DISTRICTS - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT
TERTIARY DISTRICTS - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT
TERTIARY DISTRICTS - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT
A5030_1
A5030_2
A5030_3
A5030_4
B5036_1
B5036_2
B5036_3
B5036_4
 
How many tertiary electoral districts are there? How many tertiary electoral districts are there?  
COMPULSORY VOTING
A5031 B5037  
Is voting compulsory? Is voting compulsory?  
COMPULSORY VOTING - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
COMPULSORY VOTING - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
COMPULSORY VOTING - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
COMPULSORY VOTING - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
    C5044_1
C5044_2
C5044_3
C5044_4
    Is voting compulsory? Definition: Voting is compulsory if the law states that all those who have the right to vote are obliged to exercise that right.
VOTES CAST - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
VOTES CAST - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
VOTES CAST - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
VOTES CAST - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
A5032_1
A5032_2
A5032_3
A5032_4
B5038_1
B5038_2
B5038_3
B5038_4
C5038_1
C5038_2
C5038_3
C5038_4
How many votes do they or can they cast? How many votes do they or can they cast? How many votes do voters cast or can cast? In systems where voters rank order the candidates, if there are 10 candidates (for example), the response to this question should be 10.
VOTING PROCEDURE - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
VOTING PROCEDURE - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
VOTING PROCEDURE - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
VOTING PROCEDURE - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
A5033_1
A5033_2
A5033_3
A5033_4
B5039_1
B5039_2
B5039_3
B5039_4
C5039_1
C5039_2
C5039_3
C5039_4
With each vote allocated in this segment, voters select: With each vote allocated in this segment, voters select: Do they vote for candidates (not party lists) or party lists? Definition: Party bloc voting is used in multi-member districts where voters cast a single party-centered vote for their party of choice; the party with the most votes wins all of the district seats.
VOTING ROUNDS - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
VOTING ROUNDS - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
VOTING ROUNDS - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
VOTING ROUNDS - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
    C5040_1
C5040_2
C5040_3
C5040_4
    How many rounds of voting are there?
TRANSFERABLE VOTES
  B5040  
  Are the votes transferable?  
TRANSFERABLE VOTES - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
TRANSFERABLE VOTES - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
TRANSFERABLE VOTES - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
TRANSFERABLE VOTES - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
    C5042_1
C5042_2
C5042_3
C5042_4
    Are the votes transferable? Definition: In systems with preferential voting, a voter can express a list of preferences. E.g., votes can be cast by putting a '1' in the column next to the voter's preferred candidate, a '2' beside their second favorite candidate and so on. Votes are counted according to the first preferences and any candidates who have achieved the predetermined quota are elected. To decide which of the remaining candidates are elected the votes are transferred from candidates who have more than the necessary number to achieve the quota and from the candidate with the least number of votes. An example of this is the election in Ireland in 2002.
CUMULATED VOTES - IF MORE THAN ONE CAN BE CAST
  B5041  
  If more than one vote can be cast, can they be cumulated?  
CUMULATED VOTES - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
CUMULATED VOTES - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
CUMULATED VOTES - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
CUMULATED VOTES - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
    C5043_1
C5043_2
C5043_3
C5043_4
    If more than one vote can be cast, can they be cumulated? Definition: Cumulative voting refers to systems in which voters are allowed to cast more than one vote for a single candidate.
ELECTORAL FORMULA - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT
ELECTORAL FORMULA - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT
ELECTORAL FORMULA - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT
ELECTORAL FORMULA - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT
A5034_1
A5034_2
A5034_3
A5034_4
B5043_1
B5043_2
B5043_3
B5043_4
 
What electoral formula(e) are used? What electoral formula(e) are used?  
ELECTORAL FORMULA - LOWEST TIER - LOWER HOUSE
ELECTORAL FORMULA - SECOND TIER - LOWER HOUSE
ELECTORAL FORMULA - THIRD TIER - LOWER HOUSE
    C5065
C5068
C5071
    The precise electoral formula used in the [first or lowest/second/third] electoral segment (tier) of the lower house.
IS THERE PARTY THRESHOLD - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
IS THERE PARTY THRESHOLD - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
IS THERE PARTY THRESHOLD - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
IS THERE PARTY THRESHOLD - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
    C5045_1
C5045_2
C5045_3
C5045_4
    Are there legally mandated thresholds that a party must exceed before it is eligible to receive seats?
PARTY THRESHOLD - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
PARTY THRESHOLD - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
PARTY THRESHOLD - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
PARTY THRESHOLD - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
A5035_1
A5035_2
A5035_3
A5035_4
B5042_1
B5042_2
B5042_3
B5042_4
C5046_1
C5046_2
C5046_3
C5046_4
Are there legally mandated thresholds that a party must exceed before it is eligible to receive seats? If so, what is the threshold? (percentage of vote) Are there legally mandated thresholds that a party must exceed before it is eligible to receive seats? If so, what is the threshold? (percentage of vote) If yes, what is the threshold?
UNIT FOR THE THRESHOLD - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
UNIT FOR THE THRESHOLD - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
UNIT FOR THE THRESHOLD - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
UNIT FOR THE THRESHOLD - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
    C5047_1
C5047_2
C5047_3
C5047_4
    If yes, what is the unit for the threshold mentioned?
PARTY LISTS - CLOSED, OPEN, OR FLEXIBLE
  B5044  
  If there are lists, are they closed, open, or flexible?  
PARTY LISTS - LOWER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
PARTY LISTS - LOWER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
PARTY LISTS - UPPER - 1ST SEGMENT (TIER)
PARTY LISTS - UPPER - 2ND SEGMENT (TIER)
    C5041_1
C5041_2
C5041_3
C5041_4
    If there are lists, are they closed, open, flexible, or is there party bloc voting?
CAN PARTIES RUN JOINT LISTS
A5036 B5045  
Can parties run joint lists? Can parties run joint lists?  
REQUIREMENTS FOR JOINT PARTY LISTS
A5037 B5049 C5033
If joint lists are possible, are they subject to different regulations than single-party lists? For example higher thresholds, different numbers of candidates that may appear on the list, etc. If joint lists are possible, are they subject to different regulations than single-party lists? For example higher thresholds, different numbers of candidates that may appear on the list, etc. If joint lists are possible, are they subject to different regulations than single-party lists? For example higher thresholds, different numbers of candidates that may appear on the list, etc.
THE POSSIBILITY OF APPARENTEMENT
A5038 B5046 C5034
Is there apparentement or linking of party lists? Is there apparentement or linking of party lists? Is there apparentement or linking of lists?
TYPES OF APPARENTEMENT AGREEMENTS
A5039 B5050 C5035
If apparentement is possible, what lists can participate in such agreements? If apparentement is possible, what lists can participate in such agreements? If apparentement is possible, what lists can participate in such agreements?
MULTI-PARTY ENDORSEMENTS
A5040 B5047 C5036
Can candidates run with the endorsement of more than one party? Can candidates run with the endorsement of more than one party? Can candidates run with the endorsement of more than one party?
MULTI-PARTY ENDORSEMENTS ON BALLOT
A5041 B5051 C5037
If candidates can run with the endorsement of more than one party, is this reflected on the ballot? If candidates can run with the endorsement of more than one party, is this reflected on the ballot? If candidates can run with the endorsement of more than one party, is this reflected on the ballot?
ALLY PARTY SUPPORT
A5042 B5048  
Can parties withdraw their lists or candidates in some constituencies, urging their supporters there to vote for an ally's list or candidate? Can parties withdraw their lists or candidates in some constituencies, urging their supporters there to vote for an ally's list or candidate?  
HEAD OF STATE - INTRODUCE LEGISLATION
A5043 B5065  
Does the head of state have power of introduce legislation? Does the head of state have power of introduce legislation?  
HEAD OF STATE - EXPEDITED ACTION
A5044 B5066  
Does the Head of State have power to require expedited action on specific legislation? If yes, what is the default if the legislature takes no action? Does the Head of State have power to require expedited action on specific legislation? (i.e., set a deadline by which the legislature is required to act on the bill)?  
HEAD OF STATE - PACKAGE VETO
A5045 B5067  
Does the Head of State have package veto powers? If yes, what is the requirement to override the veto? Does the Head of State have package veto powers? If yes, what is the requirement to override the veto?  
HEAD OF STATE - PARTIAL VETO
A5046 B5068  
Does Head of State partial veto powers? If yes, what is the requirement to override the partial veto? Does the Head of State have partial veto powers? If yes, what is the requirement to override the veto?  
HEAD OF STATE - LEGISLATE BY DECREE
A5047 B5069  
Does the Head of State have power to legislate by decree? If yes, does this require that the legislature must first specifically delegate decree authority to the Head of State by statute? If yes, are there restrictions on the policy areas in which the Head of State can legislate by decree? If yes, are there other restrictions on the Head of State's authority to legislate by decree? Does the Head of State have power to issue decrees with the power of law? (to legislate by decree?)  
HEAD OF STATE - EMERGENCY POWERS
A5048 B5070  
Does the Head of State emergency powers? If yes, what actions can the head of state take under emergency authority? If yes, under what conditions can the head of state invoke emergency authority? If yes, what restrictions are there on the head of state's authority to invoke and exercise emergency authority? Does the Head of State have emergency powers?  
HEAD OF STATE - POSTPONE ELECTION
A5049    
Do emergency powers allow head of state to postpone scheduled elections or extend presidential/legislative terms indefinitely?    
HEAD OF STATE - NEGOTIATE AGREEMENTS
A5050 B5071  
Does the Head of State have power to negotiate treaties and international agreements? If yes, what other requirements are there for approval of treaties and international agreements negotiated by the head of state? Does the Head of State have power to negotiate treaties and international agreements? If yes, what other requirements are there for approval of treaties and international agreements negotiated by the head of state?  
HEAD OF STATE - COMMANDER OF FORCES
A5051 B5072  
Does the Head of State have power as commander of the armed forces? Does the Head of State have power as commander of the armed forces?  
HEAD OF STATE - PROMOTION OF OFFICERS
A5052    
If yes, does the Head of State control promotions of high ranking officers?    
HEAD OF STATE - DEMOTION OF OFFICERS
A5053    
If yes, can the Head of State dismiss or demote high-ranking officers?    
HEAD OF STATE - MOBILIZE TROOPS
A5054    
If yes, can the Head of State mobilize and demobilize troops?    
HEAD OF STATE - INTRODUCE REFERENDA
A5055 B5073  
Does the head of State have power to introduce referenda? If yes, under what conditions? Does the head of State have power to introduce referenda or plebiscites? If yes, under what conditions?  
HEAD OF STATE - REFER LEGISLATION TO JUDICIARY
A5056 B5074  
Does the Head of State have the power to refer legislation to the judicial branch for review of constitutionality? Does the Head of State have the power to refer legislation to the judicial branch for review of constitutionality?  
HEAD OF STATE - LEGISLATIVE SESSIONS
A5057 B5075  
Does the Head of State have power to convene special legislative sessions? If yes, is this the Head of State's power exclusively, or can any other(s) do this as well? Does the Head of State have power to convene special legislative sessions?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - CABINET - NAME MINISTERS
A5058 B5084_1  
If there is a prime minister, what authorities does the prime minister have over the composition of the cabinet? Does the Head of Government have the authority to name ministers and assign portfolios alone?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - CABINET - NOMINATE MINISTERS
  B5084_2  
  Does the Head of Government have the authority to nominate ministers for approval by the president?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - CABINET - REVIEW MINISTERIAL NOMINATIONS
  B5084_3  
  Does the Head of Government have the authority to review and approve ministerial nominations made by the president?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - CABINET - DISMISS MINISTERS
  B5084_4  
  Does the Head of Government have the authority to dismiss ministers and reassign portfolios at own discretion?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - CABINET - OTHER
  B5084_5  
  Does the Head of Government have some other authorities over the cabinet (please explain)?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - POLICY - OTHER
  B5084_6  
  If there is a Head of Government, What authority does the Head of Government have over the policy making process? Other (please explain)?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - POLICY - CHAIR CABINET MEETINGS
A5059 B5085_1  
If there is a prime minister, what authorities does the prime minister have over the policy making process? Chairs cabinet meetings? If there is a Head of Government, What authority does the Head of Government have over the policy making process? Chairs cabinet meetings?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - POLICY - LEGISLATURE SCHEDULES
A5060 B5085_2  
If there is a prime minister, what authorities does the prime minister have over the policy making process? Determines schedule of issues to be considered by the legislature? If there is a Head of Government, What authority does the Head of Government have over the policy making process? Determines schedule of issues to be considered by the legislature?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - POLICY - POLICY ALTERNATIVES
A5061 B5085_3  
If there is a prime minister, what authorities does the prime minister have over the policy making process? Determines which alternatives will be voted on by the legislature and in which order? If there is a Head of Government, What authority does the Head of Government have over the policy making process? Determines which alternatives will be voted on by the legislature, and in which order?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - POLICY - REFERS POLICY TO COMMITTEE
A5062 B5085_4  
If there is a prime minister, what authorities does the prime minister have over the policy making process? Refers legislative proposals to party or legislative committees? If there is a Head of Government, What authority does the Head of Government have over the policy making process? Refers legislative proposals to party or legislative committees?  
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT - POLICY - VOTES OF CONFIDENCE
A5063 B5085_5  
If there is a prime minister, what authorities does the prime minister have over the policy making process? Calls votes of confidence in government? If there is a Head of Government, What authority does the Head of Government have over the policy making process? Calls votes of confidence in government?  
CABINET DISMISSAL - HEAD OF STATE
A5064 B5086_1  
By what method(s) can cabinet members, or the entire cabinet, be dismissed? By what method(s) can the cabinet be dismissed? By the head of state acting alone?  
CABINET DISMISSAL - HEAD OF GOVERNMENT
  B5086_2  
  By what method(s) can the cabinet be dismissed? By the prime minister acting alone?  
CABINET DISMISSAL - MAJORITY OF LEGISLATURE
  B5086_3  
  By what method(s) can the cabinet be dismissed? By majority vote of the legislature where a majority of all legislators is required?  
CABINET DISMISSAL - PLURALITY OF LEGISLATURE
  B5086_4  
  By what method(s) can the cabinet be dismissed? By majority vote of the legislature where a majority of those legislators voting is required?  
CABINET DISMISSAL - COMBINATION
  B5086_5  
  By what method(s) can the cabinet be dismissed? By some combination of the above, acting in concert (Please explain)?  
CABINET DISMISSAL - OTHER
  B5086_6  
  By what method(s) can the cabinet be dismissed? Other (Please explain)?  
DISSOLUTION OF LEGISLATURE
A5065 B5087  
Can the legislature be dissolved prior to regularly schedule elections? Can the legislature be dissolved prior to regularly schedule elections?  
DISSOLUTION OF LEGISLATURE - HEAD OF STATE
  B5087_1  
  Can the legislature be dissolved prior to regularly scheduled elections? If yes - By the head of state acting alone?  
DISSOLUTION OF LEGISLATURE - HEAD OF GOVERNMENT
  B5087_2  
  Can the legislature be dissolved prior to regularly scheduled elections? If yes - By the prime minister acting alone?  
DISSOLUTION OF LEGISLATURE - MAJORITY OF LEGISLATURE
  B5087_3  
  Can the legislature be dissolved prior to regularly scheduled elections? If yes - By majority vote of the legislature?  
DISSOLUTION OF LEGISLATURE - COMBINATION
  B5087_4  
  Can the legislature be dissolved prior to regularly scheduled elections? If yes - By some combination of the above, acting in concert (Please explain)?  
DISSOLUTION OF LEGISLATURE - OTHER
  B5087_5  
  Can the legislature be dissolved prior to regularly scheduled elections? If yes - Other (Please explain)?  
RESTRICTIONS ON DISSOLVING LEGISLATURE
A5066 B5088  
... are there restrictions on when and how the legislature can be dissolved? If the legislature can be dissolved prior to regularly scheduled elections, are there restrictions on when and how the legislature can be dissolved?  
RESTRICTIONS ON DISSOLVING LEGISLATURE - TIMING
  B5088_1  
  If the legislature can be dissolved prior to regularly scheduled elections, are there restrictions on when and how the legislature can be dissolved? On the timing of dissolution?  
RESTRICTIONS ON DISSOLVING LEGISLATURE - INACTION
  B5088_2  
  If the legislature can be dissolved prior to regularly scheduled elections, are there restrictions on when and how the legislature can be dissolved? As a response to action/inaction by the legislature?  
RESTRICTIONS ON DISSOLVING LEGISLATURE - OTHER
  B5088_3  
  If the legislature can be dissolved prior to regularly scheduled elections, are there restrictions on when and how the legislature can be dissolved? Other (Explain)?  
SECOND CHAMBER OF THE LEGISLATURE
  B5089  
  Is there a second chamber of the legislature?  
IF THERE IS SECOND CHAMBER - METHOD OF ELECTION
  B5090  
  If there is a second chamber of the legislature, what is the method of election?  
IF THERE IS SECOND CHAMBER - COMPOSITION
  B5091  
  If there is a second chamber and it is indirectly elected, are those who choose its members:  
IF THERE IS SECOND CHAMBER - EXCLUSIVE LEGISLATIVE POWERS
  B5092  
  If there is a second chamber, does it have specific and exclusive legislative powers?  
IF THERE IS SECOND CHAMBER - EXCLUSIVE LEGISLATIVE POWERS
  B5092  
  If there is a second chamber, does it have specific and exclusive legislative powers?  
IF THERE IS SECOND CHAMBER - POWER OVER THE CABINET
  B5093  
  If there is a second chamber, does it have the power to remove the cabinet or censure its ministers?  
CONSTITUTIONAL FEDERAL STRUCTURE
  B5094 C5090
  Is there a constitutionally guaranteed division of power between the central government and regional and/or local governments? Is country federal?
CENTRAL POWER OVER PERIPHERY
  B5095  
  Does the central government have the power to remove elected officials of regional and/or local governments?  
FREEDOM HOUSE RATING - TIME T
FREEDOM HOUSE RATING - TIME T-1
FREEDOM HOUSE RATING - TIME T-2
    C5050_1
C5050_2
C5050_3
    These variables report Freedom House's rating of freedom in a country at three time periods: the election year (time T), one year before election (T-1), and two years before election (T-2). Each country and territory is assigned a numerical rating, on a scale of 1 to 7. A rating of 1 indicates the highest degree of freedom and 7 the least amount of freedom. CSES reports average of the "Political Rights" and "Civil Liberties" scores.
DEMOCRACY-AUTOCRACY - POLITY IV RATING - TIME T
DEMOCRACY-AUTOCRACY - POLITY IV RATING - TIME T-1
DEMOCRACY-AUTOCRACY - POLITY IV RATING - TIME T-2
    C5050_1
C5050_2
C5050_3
    These variables report POLITY IV ratings of institutionalized democracy versus autocracy in a country, at three time periods: the election year (time T), one year before election (T-1), and two years before election (T-2). CSES reports the original variable POLITY - Combined Polity Score. The variable is constructed by subtracting the autocracy score from the democracy score; the resulting scale ranges from +10 (strongly democratic) to -10 (strongly autocratic).
AGE OF THE CURRENT REGIME
    C5052
    The number of years since the most recent regime change (defined by a three-point change in the POLITY score over a period of three years or less) or the end of transition period defined by the lack of stable political institutions (denoted by a standardized authority score) [From Polity IV Project Dataset Users' Manual].
REGIME: TYPE OF EXECUTIVE
    C5052
    Classification of political regimes in which democracies are distinguished by the type of executive (0 Dictatorship, 1 Parliamentary Democracy, 2 Mixed Democracy, 3 Presidential Democracy).
GDP GROWTH - ANNUAL % (WORLD BANK) - TIME T
GDP GROWTH - ANNUAL % (WORLD BANK) - TIME T-1
GDP GROWTH - ANNUAL % (WORLD BANK) - TIME T-2
    C5080_1
C5080_2
C5080_3
    These variables report World Bank estimate of the annual GDP growth, at three time periods: the election year (time T), one year before election (T-1), and two years before election (T-2).
GDP PER CAPITA, PPP (WORLD BANK) - TIME T
GDP PER CAPITA, PPP (WORLD BANK) - TIME T-1
GDP PER CAPITA, PPP (WORLD BANK) - TIME T-2
    C5081_1
C5081_2
C5081_3
    These variables report World Bank estimate of the GDP per capita, at three time periods: the election year (time T), one year before election (T-1), and two years before election (T-2).
INFLATION, GDP DEFLATOR (ANNUAL %) (WORLD BANK) - TIME T
INFLATION, GDP DEFLATOR (ANNUAL %) (WORLD BANK) - TIME T-1
INFLATION, GDP DEFLATOR (ANNUAL %) (WORLD BANK) - TIME T-2
    C5082_1
C5082_2
C5082_3
    These variables report World Bank estimate of Inflation at three time periods: the election year (time T), one year before election (T-1), and two years before election (T-2).
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (UNDP) - TIME T
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (UNDP) - TIME T-1
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (UNDP) - TIME T-2
    C5083_1
C5083_2
C5083_3
    These variables report UNDP Human Development Index (HDI) at three time periods: the election year (time T), one year before election (T-1), and two years before election (T-2).
POPULATION, TOTAL (WORLD BANK) - TIME T
POPULATION, TOTAL (WORLD BANK) - TIME T-1
POPULATION, TOTAL (WORLD BANK) - TIME T-2
    C5084_1
C5084_2
C5084_3
    These variables report World Bank estimate of the total population size, at three time periods: the election year (time T), one year before election (T-1), and two years before election (T-2).
UNEMPLOYMENT, TOTAL (WORLD BANK) - TIME T
UNEMPLOYMENT, TOTAL (WORLD BANK) - TIME T-1
UNEMPLOYMENT, TOTAL (WORLD BANK) - TIME T-2
    C5085_1
C5085_2
C5085_3
    These variables report World Bank estimate of the unemployment rate (% of total labor force), at three time periods: the election year (time T), one year before election (T-1), and two years before election (T-2).
ELECTORAL RESULTS DATA AVAILABLE
    C5092
    Are electoral results data available?