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Electoral Formulae

Last updated: October 24, 2005

This table shows electoral formulae in use in each country during various election studies.

  LOWER HOUSE - 1ST SEGMENT LOWER HOUSE - 2ND SEGMENT UPPER HOUSE - 1ST SEGMENT UPPER HOUSE - 2ND SEGMENT
PLURALITY        
PLURALITY - SINGLE
MEMBER
DISTRICTS
CANADA 1997
GERMANY 1998
GERMANY 2002
GREAT BRITAIN 1997
JAPAN 1996
MEXICO 1997
MEXICO 2000
MEXICO 2003
NEW ZEALAND 1996
NEW ZEALAND 2002
RUSSIA 1999
RUSSIA 2000
SOUTH KOREA 2000
SOUTH KOREA 2004
THAILAND 2001
UNITED STATES 1996
UNITED STATES 2004
  CZECH REPUB 1996
CZECH REPUB 2002
UNITED STATES 1996
UNITED STATES 2004
 
PLURALITY - MULTI
MEMBER
DISTRICTS
TAIWAN 1996
TAIWAN 2001
  BRAZIL 2002
MEXICO 1997
MEXICO 2000
MEXICO 2003
POLAND 1997
POLAND 2001
SPAIN 2004
THAILAND 2001
TAIWAN 1996
 
MAJORITY LITHUANIA 1997
UKRAINE 1998
SLOVENIA 1996    
MAJORITY - RUN-OFF BELARUS 2001
FRANCE 2002
HUNGARY 1998
HUNGARY 2002
  SWITZERLAND 1999
SWITZERLAND 2003
 
MAJORITY -
ALTERNATIVE
AUSTRALIA 1996
AUSTRALIA 2004
  AUSTRALIA 1996
AUSTRALIA 2004
 
PROPORTIONAL
REPRESENTATION
CZECH REPUB 1996 GERMANY 1998
SOUTH KOREA 2000
LITHUANIA 1997
MEXICO 1997
MEXICO 2000
THAILAND 2001
TAIWAN 1996
UKRAINE 1998
ROMANIA 1996 TAIWAN 1996
PROPORTIONAL
REPRESENTATION -
D'HONDT
BELGIUM 1999
BELGIUM 2003
BULGARIA 2001
CHILE 1999
CZECH REPUB 2002
FINLAND 2003
ICELAND 2003
ISRAEL 1996
ISRAEL 2003
NETHERLANDS 1998
PERU 2000
PERU 2001
POLAND 1997
PORTUGAL 2002
SLOVENIA 1996
SPAIN 1996
SPAIN 2000
SPAIN 2004
SWITZERLAND 1999
SWITZERLAND 2003
HUNGARY 1998
JAPAN 1996
POLAND 1997
BELGIUM 1999
BELGIUM 2003
CHILE 1999
SPAIN 1996
SPAIN 2000
JAPAN 1996
JAPAN 1996
PROPORTIONAL
REPRESENTATION -
LARGEST REMAINDER -
DROOP
  HUNGARY 2002    
PROPORTIONAL
REPRESENTATION -
LARGEST REMAINDER -
HARE
BRAZIL 2002
HONG KONG 1998
HONG KONG 2000
HONG KONG 2004
ICELAND 1999
IRELAND 2002
ROMANIA 1996
GERMANY 2002
RUSSIA 1999
RUSSIA 2000
SOUTH KOREA 2004
   
PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION - STE-LAGUE DENMARK 1998
DENMARK 2001
NORWAY 1997
NORWAY 2001
POLAND 2001
SWEDEN 1998
NEW ZEALAND 1996
NEW ZEALAND 2002
   
  LOWER HOUSE - 1ST SEGMENT LOWER HOUSE - 2ND SEGMENT UPPER HOUSE - 1ST SEGMENT UPPER HOUSE - 2ND SEGMENT

Data Source:
CSES Module 1: August 4, 2003 version
CSES Module 2: June 29, 2005 version

Variables Used:
CSES Module 1: A5034_1, A5034_2, A5034_3, A5034_4
CSES Module 2: B5043_1, B5043_2, B5043_3, B5043_4

Notes: