CSES Module 1 Data Set Errata
Posted: October 24, 2010
Switzerland (1999) - Macro Variables A5031, A5032_1, A5032_3, A5034_1, A5034_3, A5035_1, and A5042
Since the last full release of the CSES Module 1 data, Swiss collaborators have found corrections to seven macro variables (listed above).
Recommended changes to the data file are as follows:
VARIABLE ORIGINAL VALUE NEW VALUE -------- -------------- --------- A5031 03. Yes; Limited enforcement 05. No A5035_1 07. 00. A5032_1 02. 91. Other [See variable notes] A5032_3 01. 91. Other [See variable notes] A5042 05. No 01. Yes
The following code, written for SPSS, will correct the problems:
If A1004 = "CHE_1999" A5031 = 5. If A1004 = "CHE_1999" A5032_1 = 91. If A1004 = "CHE_1999" A5032_3 = 91. If A1004 = "CHE_1999" A5035_1 = 0. If A1004 = "CHE_1999" A5042 = 1.
The following election studies notes should replace existing election study notes, as appropriate:
| ELECTION STUDY NOTES - SWITZERLAND (1999): A5031 | | Voting is compulsory in only a single district (Schaffhausen, | A2027=14), i.e., applies to about 1% of the Swiss population, | where those abstaining without a justifiable reason are subject | to a small fine. | ELECTION STUDY NOTES - SWITZERLAND (1999): A5032_1 | | All Switzerland cases for this variable have been coded "91" | for the following reason: | Voters can cast as many votes as there are seats in their | districts (1 to 34; see A4001). | ELECTION STUDY NOTES - SWITZERLAND (1999): A5032_3 | | All Switzerland cases for this variable have been coded "91" | for the following reason: | Voters can cast one or two votes, depending on whether their | district is a canton or a so-called half-canton. Cantons are | represented by two councilors each in the upper house, and | voters have two votes, accordingly. Half cantons elect a single | representative, and voters can therefore cast only one vote. | Half-cantons are Obwalden (A2027=6), Nidwalden (7), Basle-Town | (12), Basle-Country (13), Appenzell Outer-Rhodes (15) and | Appenzell Inner-Rhodes (16). | ELECTION STUDY NOTES - SWITZERLAND (2003): A5034_1 | | "Proportional representation election system in all cantons | with more than 1 seat according the Hagenbach-Bischoff System. | Single-member-districts (OW, NW, UR, GL, AI, and AR from 2003) | have a Majority voting system (simple Majority required). | Hagenbach-Bischoff System: Proportional Representation system | based on the highest Average concept. Involves the combination | of a quota and a divisor system. Two stage process where | candidates receiving a quota are elected first and any remaining | seats are determined by a divisor system (d'Hondt). | Note that PR formally applies to all the districts in lower | house (National Council) elections, but PR elections congeal to | de facto plurality in single member districts. | ELECTION STUDY NOTES - SWITZERLAND (2003): A5034_3 | | The seats are assigned in majority run-off elections, with two | exceptions. Canton Jura uses d'Hondt PR formula, while Upper | House elections in Appenzell Inner-Rhodes (AI) are held at the | Landsgemeinde, an annual assembly of all citizens. The | electoral formula may most properly be described as plurality | (citizens simply raise their hands for one candidate, vote | shares are roughly estimated rather than counted, no qualified | majority is needed). "There are different ways to calculate the | absolute majority. In the cantons LU, UR, SZ, FR, AR, SG, AG, | TG, VD, VS, NE, JU - on the base of all valid votes, | often minus blank votes: | (Total valid votes shared by 2) + 1 = the absolute majority. | Candidates have to get more than 50% of all votes to be elected | in the first run. In the second run (usually a few weeks later) | the simple majority is enough. In ZH, BE, GL. ZG, SO, BL, SH: | based of the votes for candidates: total votes for candidates | divided by the amount seats to provide, and then divided by | 2 = Majority. In those cases the majority is usually under 50%. | In Graubünden (GR): the total of the votes for candidates is | divided by the amount of seats to provide + 1. The result + 1 is | the absolute majority. In GE a simple Majority of 33.33% is | enough to be elected." | ELECTION STUDY NOTES - SWITZERLAND (1999): A5035_1 | | There are no legal thresholds at the national level. | ELECTION STUDY NOTES - SWITZERLAND (1999): A5042 | | In the Upper House elections, in some cases parties refrain from | running candidate(s) already on first ballots. In other cases | parties withdraw their candidacies in run-offs. Strategic | coordination between parties is not limited to Upper House | elections alone. Especially in Lower House single-member | districts (SMDs) it is quite common that parties fraternally | divide upper and lower house seat(s) among them before the | election, so that elections are either 'mock' elections (i.e. no | prosperous rival candidates), or, in case of perfect | coordination, 'tacit' elections (i.e. no rival candidates at | all, and thus, no election is held). The latter happened at the | 1999 lower house elections and at the 2003 upper house elections | in Obwalden. The former occurred, for example, at the 1999 | lower house elections in Uri, Glarus, Nidwalden, and Appenzell | Inner-Rhodes, and at the 2003 lower house elections in the | mentioned districts plus Obwalden.